Regeneration Mode, Dissipation Mode, and Power Harvesting both Electromagnetic and Magneto-Rheological Shock Absorbers
Electromagnetic dampers can be largely classified into two different techniques either the mechanical system or the electrical system. The mechanical system is composed of a permanent-magnet DC motor, a ball screw and a nut, and the electrical system is composed of coils and permanent magnet assemblies. In this paper, the performances of the mechanical system and the electrical system as passive and semi-active techniques are compared with a magneto-rheological damper performance, and the characteristic responses of these dampers are presented. The magnetorheological damper coil is connected with generator coil and this damper is namely in this case a self –power (regeneration mode of a passive case), because the applied current on this damper is dependent on current generated of the generator. The simulated results of the present study are shown that: (i) in passive cases of the electromagnetic dampers; the regenerative power of the electrical system is more than the mechanical system, and the magneto-rheological damper gives a different damping force according to the following conditions: If generated current from the generator less than 2.5V the switch 1 is closed and this current is applied on MR damper coil only, while, if generated current from the generator more than 2.5V the switch 1 is opened, and the current applied on an MR damper coil is turned off, but switch 2 is closed to charge the battery. (ii) In semi-active cases of the electromagnetic and magneto-rheological dampers; the Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) inverse models are introduced as the dampers controller, however, the magneto-rheological damper needs power over than electromagnetic dampers both mechanical and electrical systems.
Electromagnetic Dampers, Magneto-rheological Damper, Passive Cases, Regenerative Power, Semi-active Cases, Controllable Power
M. M. Gh and O. Kavianipour, "Investigation of the passive electromagnetic damper," 2012.
Z. Li, L. Zuo, G. Luhrs, L. Lin and Y.-x. Qin, "Electromagnetic Energy-Harvesting Shock Absorbers: Design, Modeling, and Road Tests," Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 62, pp. 1065-1074, 2013.
H. Ren, S. Chen and Z. Feng, "The Design and Simulation Analysis of Electromagnetic Energy Regenerative Suspension System," in Springer, China, 2012.
N. Amati, A. Festini and A. Tonoli, "Design of electromagnetic shock absorbers for automotive suspensions," International Journal of Vehicle Mechanics and Mobility, vol. 49, p. 1913–1928, 2011.
Z. Longxin and W. Xiaogang, "Structure and Performance Analysis of Regenerative Electromagnetic Shock Absorber," Journal of Networks, vol. 5, pp. 1467-1474, 2010.
A. Gupta, J. A. Jendrzejczyk, T. M. Mulcahy and J. R. Hull, "Design of electromagnetic shock absorbers," Int J Mech Mater Des, vol. 3, p. 285–291, 2006.
R. A. Oprea, M. Mihailescu, A. I. Chirila and I. D. Deaconu, "Design and Efficiency of Linear Electromagnetic Shock Absorbers," IEEE, vol. 12, pp. 630-634, 2012.
S. Singh and N. V. Satpute, "Design and analysis of energy-harvesting shock absorber with electromagnetic and fluid damping," Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology, vol. 29, pp. 1591-1605, 2015.
Z. Hadas, V. Vetiska, J. Vetiska and J. Krejsa, "Analysis and efficiency measurement of electromagnetic vibration energy harvesting system," Microsyst Technol, vol. 22, p. 1767–1779, 2016.
J. Zheng, Z. Li, J. Koo and J. Wang, "Magnetic Circuit Design and Multiphysics Analysis of a Novel MR Damper for Applications under High Velocity," Advances in Mechanical Engineering, vol. 1, pp. 1-16, 2014.
J. SNAMINA and B. SAPIŃSKI, "Energy balance in self-powered MR damper-based vibration reduction system," Technical Sciences, vol. 59, pp. 75-80, 2011.
X. Zhu, W. Wang, B. Yao, J. Cao and Q. Wang, "Analytical Modeling and Optimal Design of a MR Damper with Power Generation," in IEEE International Conference on Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics (AIM), Korea, 2015.
M. WĊgrzynowski, "Magnetorheological damper control in an energyíharvesting vibration reduction system," in 15th International Carpathian Control Conference (ICCC), Poland, 2014.
R. Ahamed, M. M. Rashid, M. M. Ferdaus and H. M. Yusof, "Design and modeling of energy generated magneto rheological damper," Korea-Australia Rheology Journal, vol. 28, pp. 67-74, 2016.
H. Metered, "Application of Nonparametric Magnetorheological Damper Model in Vehicle Semi-active Suspension System," Int. J. Passeng. Cars - Mech. Syst, vol. 5, pp. 1-12, 2012.
B. F. Spencer Jr, S. J. Dyke, M. K. Sain and J. D. Carlson, "Phenomenological Model of a Magnetorheological Damper," ASCE Journal of Engineering Mechanics, vol. 1, pp. 1-23, 1996.
J. Gołdasz and B. Sapiński, Insight into Magnetorheological Shock Absorbers, London: Springer, 2015.
H. Metered, P. Bonello and S. O. Oyadiji, "The experimental identification of magnetorheological dampers and evaluation of their controllers," Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, vol. 24, p. 976–994, 2010.
H. Metered, P. Bonello and S. O. Oyadiji, "An investigation into the use of neural networks for the semi-active control of a magnetorheologically damped vehicle suspension," Proc. I Mech E Part D: J. Automobile Engineering, vol. 224, pp. 829-848, 2010.
L.-. H. Zong, X.-. L. Gong, C.-. Y. Guo and S.-. H. Xuan, "Inverse Neuro-fuzzy MR Damper Model and its Application in Vibration Control of Vehicle Suspension System, Vehicle System Dynamics," International Journal of Vehicle Mechanics and Mobility, p. 1025–1041, 2012.
S. Mirzaei, Writer, A Flexible Electromagnetic Damper. [Performance]. Ph.D. dissertation, Department of EE, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran, 2007.
J. J. H. Paulides, L. Encica, E. A. Lomonova and A. J. A. Vandenput, "Design Considerations for a Semi-Active Electromagnetic Suspension System," IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, vol. 42, pp. 3446-3448, 2006.