Welcome to Open Science
Contact Us
Home Books Journals Submission Open Science Join Us News
Comparing Optimally Produced Charcoal Briquettes from Raffia Palm Shells with Hard Wood Charcoal
Current Issue
Volume 5, 2018
Issue 3 (June)
Pages: 29-35   |   Vol. 5, No. 3, June 2018   |   Follow on         
Paper in PDF Downloads: 21   Since Sep. 1, 2018 Views: 875   Since Sep. 1, 2018
Authors
[1]
Raphael Terungwa Iwar, Department of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, University of Agriculture Makurdi, Nigeria.
[2]
Kola Ogendengbe, Department of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.
[3]
Faith Nnekka Aniogbu, Department of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, University of Agriculture Makurdi, Nigeria.
Abstract
In this study, an appropriate, cost effective and easy to duplicate manually operated biomass briquetting machine suitable for use in rural communities was developed following standard design procedures. Carbonization of the raw material (Raffia Palm Shells) was done using a laboratory muffle furnace. The developed machine was evaluated for the production of charcoal briquettes using the carbonized Raffia Palm fruit shells, a synthetic gum and cassava starch as binders. The qualities of the produced briquettes were measured in terms of the briquette thermal and physical properties following standard methods. Thermal and physical properties of the optimally produced briquettes using the two binder types and those of the convention hard wood charcoal were statistically compared using a one factor Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The developed briquetting machine had an average throughput capacity of 64kg/hr. Thermal properties of the briquettes and hard wood charcoal ranged from 2.42 – 3.83g/min, 7.67 – 17.33 min, and 20052.20 – 29600.00 kJ/kg for burning rate, ignition time and calorific value respectively. On the other hand the physical properties of the briquettes and hard wood charcoal ranged from 399.63 – 523.67 kg/m3, 0.72 – 1.00, 46.67 – 81.90% and 399.63 – 470.98kg/m3 for compressed density, durability index, water resistance capacity and relaxed density respectively. Results of the ANOVA revealed that the thermal and physical properties of the briquettes were significantly affected by the binder type at 95% confidence level. In general, the properties of the studied briquettes compared favorably with those of the conventional hard wood charcoal. It was therefore concluded that Raffia palm shells hold great potentials for use as a raw material for the production of charcoal briquettes for rural household energy utilization. It is however recommended that the drum method of carbonization be employed to enhance the cost-effectiveness of the technology in rural areas.
Keywords
Briquetting Machine, Binder Type, Raffia Palm Shells, Physical Properties, Thermal Properties, Hardwood Charcoal
Reference
[1]
Martin, J. F., Mae, R. P. and Manaay, A. O. 2008, “Design and development of charcoal briquetting machine”, Journal on Mechanical Engineering. 16: 85-90.
[2]
Altun, N. E, C. Hicyilmaz and A. S. Bagci, 2003. “Combustion characteristics of coal briquettes (Thermal features)”, Energy and Fuels, 17, 1266-1276. DOI: 10.1021/ef0202891.
[3]
Abdu, Z. and Sadiq, A. 2014, “Production and characterization of briquettes from agro waste”, Energy and Power 4 (2): 41-47.
[4]
Ihenyen O. I. 2010, “The preliminary design and fabrication of a manually-operated briquetting machine”, International Journal of Emerging Technology and Research. 2 (3): 22-27.
[5]
Iwar, R. T., Katibi, K. and Aniogbu, F. N. 2018, “Production of briquettes from raffia palm shells: Optimization using response surface methodology” International Journal of Engineering Technologies (submitted for publication).
[6]
Adekoya, L. O. 1998, “Briquetting of agricultural wastes: A preliminary study”, Proceedings of the CIGR Inter-Sections Symposium. National Centre for Agricultural Mechanization, Ilorin, Nigeria.
[7]
Olorunnisola, A. O. 2007, “Briquetting of rattan furniture waste”, Journal of Bamboo and Rattans, 3 (2): 139-149.
[8]
Oladeji, J. T. 2010, “Fuel characterization of briquettes produced from corncob and rice husk residues”, Pacific Journal of Science and Technology 11 (1): 101-106.
[9]
Suparin, C., Suwit, S. and Prattana, K. 2008, “Development of fuel briquettes from biomass-lignite blends. Chiang. Mai. J. Sci., 35 (1).
[10]
Davies R. M. and Davies O. A. 2013, “Physical and combustion characteristics of briquettes made from water hyacinth and phytoplankton scum as binder”, Journal of Combustion Volume 2013, Article ID 549894, http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/549894.
[11]
Onuegbu, T. U., Ekpunobi, U. E., Ogbu, I. M., Ekeoma, M. O. and Obumselu, F. O. 2012, “Comparative studies of ignition time and water boiling test of coal and biomass briquettes blend”, International Journal of Research & Reviews in Applied Sciences, 7: 153–159.
[12]
ASTM Standard E711-87 (2004). “Standard Test Method for Gross Calorific Value of Refuse Derived fuel by the Bomb Calorimeter”. Annual Book of ASTM Standard, 11.04. ASTM International, http//www.astm.info/standard/E711.htm.
[13]
Eriksson, S. and Prior, M. 1990, “The briquetting of agricultural wastes for fuel”, FAO, Agriculture and consumer protection Department, Rome Italy. pp 10-25.
[14]
RETSASIA 2005, “Results Earlier Reported for Sawdust Briquettes and Torrefied wood”. www.retsasia.ait.ac.th/publication/WRERC2005/RONAST-WRERC05.
[15]
Imeh E. O, Ibrahim A. M, Alewo O. A, Stanley I. R. Iand Opeoluwa O. F. 2.017. Production and Characterization of Biomass Briquettes from Tannery Solid Waste. Recyclying, 17 (2): 1-19.
[16]
Elanda, F. and Citra, S. 2018. Study on the Use and Composition of Bio-Charcoal Briquettes Made of Organic Waste. Journal of Ecological Engineering, 19 (2): 81-88.
[17]
Ajiboye, T. K., Abdulkareem, S. and Anibijuwon, A. O. Y. 2016. Investigation of Mechanical Properties of Briquette Product of Sawdust-charcoal as a Potential Domestic Energy Source. J. Appl. Sci. Environ. Manage. 20 (4): 1179-1188.
Open Science Scholarly Journals
Open Science is a peer-reviewed platform, the journals of which cover a wide range of academic disciplines and serve the world's research and scholarly communities. Upon acceptance, Open Science Journals will be immediately and permanently free for everyone to read and download.
CONTACT US
Office Address:
228 Park Ave., S#45956, New York, NY 10003
Phone: +(001)(347)535 0661
E-mail:
LET'S GET IN TOUCH
Name
E-mail
Subject
Message
SEND MASSAGE
Copyright © 2013-, Open Science Publishers - All Rights Reserved