Effect of Reaction Time on the Yield of Biodiesel from Neem Seed Oil
Abba E. C., Department of Agricultural and Bioresources Engineering, Federal University of Technology Owerri, Ihiagwa, Nigeria.
Nwakuba N. R., Department of Agricultural and Bioresources Engineering, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Nigeria.
Obasi S. N., Department of Agricultural Technology, Imo State Polytechnic Umuagwo, Umuagwo, Nigeria.
Enem J. I., Department of Civil Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria.
This research work studied the effect of reaction temperature on the yield of biodiesel from neem seed oil by transesterification process. Reaction time affects the conversion efficiency of transesterification process of converting neem seed oil to biodiesel. The materials used are neem seeds which were sourced from Federal University of Technology, Owerri (FUTO) and Ihiagwa environment. The dried seeds measured 10kg and were ground using attrition mill, the oil was extracted using solvent extraction (Soxhlet extraction method, nhexane) process. The neem seed oil was transesterified using potassium hydroxide (KOH) in methanol as catalyst to obtain the crude biodiesel. The free fatty acid content of the refined neem seed oil was 8.42mg/KOH which corresponds to free fatty acid (FFA) value of 4.20%. The free fatty acid (FFA) was reduced further to less than 1% by two step acid esterification processes. The reaction time during the transesterification processranged from 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80 and 90mins respectively. Other reaction parameters like temperature 65°C, oil to alcohol ratio 6:1, stirring speed 350rpm and catalyst concentration 0.65% were kept constant. The crude neem biodiesel was purified by washing with water severally to obtain the relatively pure biodiesel after which it was oven dried for 12hrs to obtain moisture-free pure neem biodiesel. The biodiesel was subsequently analyzed for various parameters; kinematic viscosity, iodine value, ash value, acid value, free fatty acid (FFA), specific gravity and flash point. The different variants gave results of the analyzed parameters comparable to the International standards of biodiesel (ASTM) methods. The results of the study showed that the reaction time 40-50mins gave the optimum yield of 96%. The regression model of the yield against reaction time gave R2-value of 0.938.
Effect, Reaction Time, Yield, Biodiesel, Neem Seed Oil
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