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Hydroelectric Energy Advantages and Disadvantages
Current Issue
Volume 2, 2015
Issue 2 (April)
Pages: 17-20   |   Vol. 2, No. 2, April 2015   |   Follow on         
Paper in PDF Downloads: 308   Since Aug. 28, 2015 Views: 4231   Since Aug. 28, 2015
Authors
[1]
Askari Mohammad Bagher, Department of Physics, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran.
[2]
Mirzaei Vahid, Faculty of Physics, Shahid Bahonar University, Kerman, Iran.
[3]
Mirhabibi Mohsen, Department of Physics, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran.
[4]
Dehghani Parvin, Department of Physics, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran.
Abstract
Hydroelectricity is the term referring to electricity generated by hydropower; the production of electrical power through the use of the gravitational force of falling or flowing water. It is the most widely used form of renewable energy, accounting for 16 percent of global electricity generation – 3,427 terawatt-hours of electricity production in 2010, [1] and is expected to increase about 3.1% each year for the next 25 years. Hydropower is produced in 150 countries, with the Asia-Pacific region generating 32 percent of global hydropower in 2010. China is the largest hydroelectricity producer, with 721 terawatt-hours of production in 2010, representing around 17 percent of domestic electricity use. There are now four hydroelectricity stations larger than 10 GW: the Three Gorges Dam and Xiluodu Dam in China, Itaipu Dam across the Brazil/Paraguay border, and Guri Dam in Venezuela.[1] The cost of hydroelectricity is relatively low, making it a competitive source of renewable electricity. The average cost of electricity from a hydro station larger than 10 megawatts is 3 to 5 U.S. cents per kilowatt-hour. [1] It is also a flexible source of electricity since the amount produced by the station can be changed up or down very quickly to adapt to changing energy demands. However, damming interrupts the flow of rivers and can harm local ecosystems, and building large dams and reservoirs often involves displacing people and wildlife.[1] Once a hydroelectric complex is constructed, the project produces no direct waste, and has a considerably lower output level of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2) than fossil fuel powered energy plants. [2]
Keywords
Hydroelectric, Renewable Energy, Hydropower
Reference
[1]
World watch Institute (January 2012). "Use and Capacity of Global Hydropower Increases".
[2]
Renewable 2011 Global Status Report, page 25, Hydropower, REN21, published 2011, accessed 2011-11-7.
[3]
http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/global-warming/hydropower-profile/
[4]
Facts You Should Know About Hydropower, National Hydropower Association, 1996
[5]
Final Environmental Impact Statement - Wisconsin River Basin, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, 1996
[6]
Lake Holcombe Recreational Use Study, Northern States Power Company, 1996
[7]
http://www.technologystudent.com/energy1/hydr2.htm
[8]
http://energyinformative.org/hydroelectric-energy-pros-and-cons/
[9]
Hydroelectric Energy Pros and Cons by Mathias Aarre Maehlum
[10]
www.cce.ufl.edu/wp
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