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Phytochemical Composition and Antidiabetic Properties of Aqueous Stem Extract of Pennisetum purpureum on Alloxan – Induced Diabetic Wistar-Albino Rats
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Volume 3, 2015
Issue 6 (December)
Pages: 72-79   |   Vol. 3, No. 6, December 2015   |   Follow on         
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Akuru Udiomine Brantley, Department of Chemistry, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.
Akaninwor Joyce O., Department of Biochemistry, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.
Amadi Benjamin Achor, Department of Biochemistry, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.
Phytochemical composition and antidiabetic properties of aqueous stem extract of Pennisetum purpureum on alloxan –induced diabetic wistar-albino rats was assessed. Phytochemical analysis was carried out on the plant using gas chromatophrapy. While the anti-diabetic study was carried out on twenty eight (28) wistar albino rats administered with the aqueous stem extract for 21 days, after which blood samples were collected and subjected to biochemical parameters viz blood glucose, lipid profile, liver enzymes test and haematological parameters. The rats were divided into seven groups of four rats each designated as C, D, A200mg/kg, D200mg/kg, D400mg/kg, D600mg/kg and Dmet®. Diabetes was induced in all the groups, except group C (positive control) and A200mg/kg (sample control). Group D (negative control) was not treated while the other groups were treated with aqueous stem extract of Pennisetum purpureum and a reference drug (metformin® 1.4mg/kg), which was administered orally to the animals once per day for 21 days at varying concentrations of 200mg/kg, 400mg/kg and 600 mg/kg body weights. The blood glucose levels were examined for 7, 14 and 21 days. Phytochemical analysis indicated the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins and phenols. The flavonoid content revealed the presence of anthocyanin (0.06%), kampferol (0.09%), rutin (2.10%), catechin (2.49%) tannins (67.89%), lunamarine (26.21%) an alkaloid, and phenol (1.16%). The aqueous stem extract exhibited significant (p<0.05) reduction in the blood glucose concentration of the albino rats at 400mg/kg of the aqueous stem extract of the plant. The aqueous stem extract also compared favourably with the standard reference drug (metformin®). There was significant (p<0.05) reduction in triglyceride, very low density lipoprotein and white blood cell levels while high density lipoprotein level, cholesterol and low density lipoprotein level have no significant difference (p>0.05). It can be concluded that aqueous stem extract of Pennisetum purpureum might possibly be used for treating diabetes and its related complications (hyperlipidemia).
Diabetes, Pennisetum purpureum, Phytochemical Analysis, Antidiabetic Properties
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