Phosphate Removal from Wastewater by Electrocoagulation Using Aluminium Electrodes
The removal of phosphate from wastewater by electrocoagulation using aluminum electrodes was investigated. The main objectives of the experiments were to investigate the effects of the various operating parameters, such as current density, Electrocoagulation(EC)duration, initial phosphate concentration, temperature, pH of the solution, salt (NaCl) concentrations and electrolyte type [NaCl, KCl, NaNO2, NaNO3 ] on the phosphate removal efficiency from synthetic wastewater in batch EC process. The ranges of experimental parameters were between 10 and 150 mg PO4/L for initial phosphate concentration, 3–10 for initial pH of the wastewater, 0.5–5 g NaCl/L for supporting electrolyte concentration, 2g/L of other supporting electrolytes KCl, NaNO3, NaNO2 and 1.13–4.54 mA/cm2 for current density. The results showed that the maximum removal efficiency was achieved at a current density of 4.54mA/cm2, at a pH of 7.0 and 4-5 g/L NaCl.
Phosphate Removal, Electrocoagulation, Water Treatment, Nutrient Removal, Aluminum Electrode
U. Kurt, M. T. Gonullu, F. Ilhan, K.Varinca "Treatment of Domestic Wastewater by Electrocoagulation in a Cell with Fe–Fe Electrodes", Environmental Engineering Science, 25(2), (2008),153-162.
C.Vohla, M.Koiv, H. John Bavor, F. Chazarenc, U. Mander " Filter materials for phosphorus removal from wastewater in treatment wetlands—A review", Ecological Engineering, 37(1), (2011), 70-89.
A. Attour, M. Touati, M. Tlili, M. Ben Amor, F. Lapicque, J.-P. Leclerc, "Influence of operating parameters on phosphate removal from water by electrocoagulation using aluminum electrodes", Separation and Purification Technology ,123 (2014) ,124–129.
J. A. Rentz , I. P. Turner, J. L. Ullman "Removal of phosphorus from solution using biogenic iron oxides " , Water Research, 43(7), (2009), 2029-2035.
O. Gutierrez, D. Park, Keshab R. Sharma, Z. Yuan " Iron salts dosage for sulfide control in sewers induces chemical phosphorus removal during wastewater treatment" , Water Research, 44(11), (2010), 3467-3475.
P. Janoš, A. Kopecká, S. Hejda, " Utilization of waste humate product (iron humate) for the phosphorus removal from waters " ,Desalination, 265(1–3), (2011), 88–92.
P.Weiss, D. Eveborn, E. Karrman, J. Petter Gustafsson "Environmental systems analysis of four on-site wastewater treatment options " ,Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 52(10), (2008), 1153-1161.
S. Moharami, M. Jalali, "Removal of phosphorus from aqueous solution by Iranian natural adsorbents", Chemical Engineering Journal ,223, (2013) ,328–339.
T. Liu, K. Wu, L. Zeng," Removal of phosphorus by a composite metal oxide adsorbent derived from manganese ore tailings", Journal of Hazardous Materials, 217– 218 (2012), 29– 35.
C. Jiang, Li. Jia, Y. He, B. Zhang, G. Kirumba, J. Xie, "Adsorptive removal of phosphorus from aqueous solution using sponge iron and zeolite", Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 402, (2013), 246–252.
J. Thistleton, T.-A. Berry, P. Pearce And S. A. Parsons," Mechanisms Of Chemical Phosphorus Removal Ii Iron (Iii) Salts", Trans Icheme, B80( 2002).
T.Zhang, L.Ding, H. Ren, Z.Guo, J.Tan, "Thermodynamic modeling of ferric phosphate precipitation for phosphorus removal and recovery from wastewater", Journal of Hazardous Materials ,176 (2010), 444–450.
A. H. Caravelli ,C. D.Gregorio, N. E. Zaritzky, "Effect of operating conditions on the chemical phosphorus removal using ferric chloride by evaluating orthophosphate precipitation and sedimentation of formed precipitates in batch and continuous systems", Chemical Engineering Journal, 209 (2012), 469–477.
M.F.R. Zuthi, W.S. Guo, H.H. Ngo, L.D. Nghiem, F.I. Hai," Enhanced biological phosphorus removal and its modeling for the activated sludge and membrane bioreactor processes", Bioresource Technology, 139 (2013), 363–374 .
H.Chena, D.Wang, X. Li, Q.Yanga , K.Luoa, G.Zenga, "Biological phosphorus removal from real wastewater in a sequencing batch reactor operated as aerobic/extended-idle regime", Biochemical Engineering Journal, 77 (2013), 147– 153.
M. Behbahani, A. Moghaddam, M. R. and M Arami, ,"A Comparison Between Aluminum and Iron Electrodes on Removal of Phosphate from Aqueous Solutions by Electrocoagulation Process", Int. J. Environ., 5(2) (2011), 403-412.
M.Y.A. Mollah, P. Morkovsky, J.A.G. Gomes, M. Kesmez, J. Parga, D.L. Cocke, "Fundamentals, present and future perspectives of electrocoagulation", J. Hazard. Mater., B114 (2004), 199–210.
R.Kamaraj, S.Vasudevan, "Evaluation of electrocoagulation process for theremoval of strontium and cesium from aqueoussolution" , chemical engineering research and design, (2014 ).
M.Kobya, O.Taner Can, M.Bayramoglu, "Treatment of textile wastewaters by electrocoagulation using iron and aluminum electrodes", Journal of Hazardous Materials , B100 (2003), 163–178.
U.Tezcan Un, A. Savas Koparal, U.B. Ogutveren, "Fluoride removal from water and wastewater with a bach cylindrical electrode using electrocoagulation", Chemical Engineering Journal ,223 (2013) ,110–115.
J. Nouri, A.H.Mahvi, and E.Bazrafshan," Application of electrocoagulation process in removal of Zinc and Copper from Aqueous solutions by aluminum electrodes", Int. J. Environ., 4 (2), (2010), 201-208.
C. Phalakornkule, S. Polgumhang, W. Tongdaung, B. Karakat, T. Nuyut, "Electrocoagulation of blue reactive, red disperse and mixed dyes, and application in treating textile effluent", J. Environ. Manage. ,91 (2010) ,918–926.
O.T. Can, M. Kobya, E. Demirbas, M. Bayramoglu,"Treatment of the textile wastewater by combined electrocoagulation", Chemosphere 62 (2006), 181–187.
M. Malakootian, H. J.Mansoorian, and M. Moosazadeh, "performance evaluation of electrocoagulation process using iron-rod electrodes for removing hardness from drinking water", Desalination, 255 (1-3), (2010), 67-71.
I.B. Hariz, A. Halleb, N. Adhoum, L. Monser, "Treatment of petroleum refinery sulfidic spent caustic wastes by electrocoagulation", Sep. Purif. Technol. ,107 (2013), 150–157.
M. Ugurlu, A. Gürses, C. Dogar, M. Yalcin, "The removal of lignin and phenol from paper mill effluents by electrocoagulation", J. Environ. Manage., 87 (3) (2008), 420–428.
E. Lacasa, P.Ca˜nizares, C. Saez, F. J. Fernandez, M.A. Rodrigo," Removal of nitrates from groundwater by electrocoagulation", Chemical Engineering Journal 171 (2011),1012– 1017.
V. Khatibikamala, A. Torabiana, F. Janpoora, G. Hoshyaripour ,"Fluoride removal from industrial wastewater using electrocoagulation and its adsorption kinetics", Journal of Hazardous Materials, 179 (2010), 276–280.
S.Pulkka, M.Martikainen, A.Bhatnagar ,M.Sillanpaa," Electrochemical methods for the removal of anionic contaminants from water – A review" ,Separation and Purification Technology ,132 (2014) ,252–271.
I. Linares-Hernandez, C. Barrera- adiaz, G. Roa-Morales,B. Bilyeu, F. Urena-Nunez ," Influence of the anodic material on electrocoagulation performance",Chem. Eng. J. ,148 (2009), 97–105.
M. G. Arroyo, V. P.-Herranz, M. T. Montanes, J. Garcia- Anton, and J. L.. Guinon, "Effect of pH and chloride concentration on the removal of hexavalent chromium in a batch electrocoagulation reactor", J. Hazard. Mater., 169 (1-3), (2009), 1127-1133.
M. H. El-Naas, S. Al-Zuhair, A. Al-Lobaney and S. Makhlouf, "Assessment of electrocoagulation for the treatment of petroleum refinery wastewater", J. Environ. Manage., 91 (1), (2009), 180-185.
H. Gharibi, A. H. Mahvi, M. Chehrazi, R. Sheikhi, S. Hosseini,"Phosphorous removal from wastewater effluent using electro-coagulation by aluminum and iron plates", Anal. Bioanal. Electrochem., 2, (2010), 165- 177.
X. Chen, G.C. Chen, P.L. Yue, "Separation of pollutants from restaurant wastewater by electrocoagulation", Sep. Purif. Technol. 19 (2000) 65–76.
G. Mouedhen, M. Feki, M. De Petris Wery, H.F. Ayedi, "Behavior of aluminum electrodes in electrocoagulation process",Journal of Hazardous Materials, 150 (2008), 124-135.
Z. Zaroual, H. Chaair, A. H. Essadki, K. El Ass, and M. Azzi," Optimizing the removal of trivalent chromium by electrocoagulation using experimental design", Chem. Eng. J, 148 (2-3), (2009), 488-495.
E. Lacasa, P. Canizares, C. Saez, F. J. Fernandez, M. A. Rodrigo," Electrochemical phosphates removal using iron and aluminium electrodes", Chemical Engineering Journal, 172 (2011), 137– 143.
APHA, StandardMethods for Examination ofWater andWastewater, American Public Health Association,Washington, 1998, p. 87.
E.Z.El–Ashtoukhy, Y.A.El–Taweel, O.Abdelwahab, E.M.Nassef, "Treatment of Petrochemical Wastewater Containing Phenolic Compounds by Electrocoagulation Using a Fixed Bed Electrochemical Reactor", Int. J. Electrochem. Sci., 8(2013), 1534–1550.
S. Irdemez, N. Demircioglu, Y.S.YildizetZ. Bingul, "The effects of current density and phosphorus concentration on phosphorus removal from wastewater by electrocoagulation using aluminum and iron plate electrodes", Sep. Purif. Technol., 52 (2006), 218–223.
V. Khandegar, A. K. Saroha, "Electrocoagulation for the treatment of textile industry effluent A review", Journal of Environmental Management ,128 (2013) ,949-963.
E. Nassef,"Removal of Phosphorous Compounds by Electrochemical Technique", Engineering Science and Technology: An International Journal, 2(3) (2012 ).
Z.V.P.Murthy, S.Parmar,"Removal of strontium by electrocoagulation using stainless steel and aluminum elecrrodes", Desalination 282 (2011), 63-67.
S. Irdemez, N. Demircioglu, Y.S. Yildiz," The effects of pH on phosphorus removal from wastewater by electrocoagulation with iron plate electrodes", J. Hazard. Mater., 137 (2) (2006), 1231–1235.
G. Chen, "Electrochemical technologies in wastewater treatment", Separation and Purification Technology, 38( 2004), 11-41 .
S. Vasudevan, J. Lakshmi, J.Jayaraj, G. Sozhan,"Remediation of phosphate-contaminated water by electrocoagulation with aluminium, aluminium alloy and mild steel anodes', Journal of Hazardous Materials 164 (2009) 1480–1486.
C.-TaWang, W.-L. Chou, Yi-Ming Kuo,"Removal of COD from laundry wastewater by electrocoagulation/electroflotation", Journal of Hazardous Materials ,164 (2009), 81–86.
A. de Mello Ferreira, M. Marchesiello, P.-X. Thivel,"Removal of copper, zinc and nickel present in natural water containing Ca2+ and HCO-3 ions by electrocoagulation", Separation and Purification Technology ,107 (2013), 109–117.
P. Maha Lakshmi, P. Sivashanmugam,"Treatment of oil tanning effluent by electrocoagulation: Influence of ultrasound and hybrid electrode on COD removal", Separation and Purification Technology, 116 (2013), 378–384.
G.Chen,Y.T.Hung,"electrochemical wastewater treatment processes",handbook of environmental engineering, advanced physicochemical treatment technologies, 5 (2009),56-106.
N. Daneshvar,A.R.Khataee,A.R.Amani Ghadim, M.H. Rasoulifard, "Decolorization of C.I. acid yellow 23 solution by electrocoagulation process: investigation of operational parameters and evaluation of specific electrical energy consumption (SEEC)', J. Hazard. Mater. ,148 (2007), 566–572.
S.I. Pyun , S.M. Moon , S.H. Ahn, S.S. Kim, "Effects of Cl–, NO3– and SO4– ions on anodic dissolution of pure aluminium in alkaline solution", Corr. Sci., 41,( 1999),653–667.
J.L. Trompette , H. Vergnes,"On the crucial influence of some supporting electrolytes during electrocoagulation in the presence of aluminium electrodes". J. Hazard. Mater. , 163 (2009), 1282–1288.
M. Kobya, E. Demirbas, A. Dedeli, M.T. Sensoy " Treatment of rinse water from zinc phosphate coating by batch and continuous electrocoagulation process". J. Hazard. Mater. 173 (2010), 326– 334.
M. Kobya, F.Ulu, U.Gebologlu, E.Demirbas, M.S.Oncel," Treatment of potable water containing low concentration of arsenic with electrocogulation: different connection modes and Fe–Al electrodes". Sep. Purif. Technol. , 77(2011), 283–293.
E.Pajootan, M.Arami, N.M.Mahmoodi,"Binary system dye removal by electrocogulation from synthetic and real colored wastewaters". J. of Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers, 43 (2010), 282–290.
E. Nassef, " Treatment of petrochemical waste water containing phenolic compounds using electrochemical technique ", PHD thesis, chemical engineering department, faculty of engineering, aiexandria university, (2010).