Welcome to Open Science
Contact Us
Home Books Journals Submission Open Science Join Us News
Heavy Metals Contamination in Vegetables Grown Near Road-Side Soil at Seemanchal Zone of Bihar, India and Their Effect on Consumers
Current Issue
Volume 5, 2018
Issue 3 (September)
Pages: 55-65   |   Vol. 5, No. 3, September 2018   |   Follow on         
Paper in PDF Downloads: 49   Since Aug. 31, 2018 Views: 1196   Since Aug. 31, 2018
Authors
[1]
Arbind Kumar, P.G. Department of Chemistry, Darshan Sah College, Bhupendra Narayan Mandal University, Madhepura, India.
[2]
Vipin Kumar, Departments of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Katihar Engineering College, Aryabhatt Knowledge University, Patna, lndia.
Abstract
This study investigated the level of heavy metals in road side soil and vegetation as influenced by vehicular emission. Soil and vegetable samples were collected from 5, 25, 50 and 1000m (control) sampling locations of Seemanchal zone. The range of Pb, Cd and Ni content in soil and vegetables were 0.08 ± 0.01 - 30.50 ± 1.47, 0.02 ± 0.01 -10.31± 0.58, 0.01 ± 0.00 - 5.41±0.872mg/kg and 0.03 ± 0.01 - 25.36 ± 0.03, 0.01± 0.00 -7.23 ± 0.02, 0.01 ± 0.00 - 4.29 ± 0.02mg/kg respectively. The heavy metal contents in vegetables followed the same sequence of soil as Pb > Cd > Ni and decrease with increase of distance from road edge. Among the test vegetables spinach had highest metal content followed by cauliflower and ladyfinger. Contamination assessment states of the heavy metal in soil was determined by using mathematical models in term of contamination factor (CF), pollution load index (PLI), and geo-accumulation index (I-geo). All models approved that soil was polluted by Pb at 5 and 25m, and moderately polluted by Cd at all three distances from road edge. The average daily intake for Pb (0.437 mg/person/day) and for Cd (0.148mg/person/day) was above the provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDA) as suggested by FAO/WHO; however hazard quotient (HQ) and hazard index (HI) of all metals were < 1, suggested that consumption of these vegetables can be considered safe with no risk to human health. Strongly positive correlations suggested that each paired metals originate from common anthropogenic activates and high rate of human activities such as automobile emission. Therefore present study suggests that vehicular emission play significant role in elevating the contamination level of metals in soil and vegetables, which may pose a threat to the quality of soil and vegetables, with consequence of health of consumers via consumption of vegetables.
Keywords
Heavy Metal, Roadside Soil and Vegetable, Traffic Emissions, CF, PLI, I-geo, Health Risk Assessment
Reference
[1]
Yuan, Li-zhu, Bo Song, Yu-fei Huang, Feng-yan Fu, Lu. Su-fen Lu and Xue-mei Zhong, “Health Risk of Heavy Metals to the General Inhabitants in Guilin, China via Consumption of Vegetables”, In the Proceeding of the AASRI International Conference on Industrial Electronics and Applications (IPA 2015), UK, June 27-28 and pp: 445-457.
[2]
A. Kumar, Seema and V. Kumar, “Human Health Risk of Heavy Metals in Vegetables Grown in Contaminated Soil Irrigated with Sewage Water”, American Journal of Food Science and Nutrition, 2017; Vol. 4 (4), pp. 23-35, http://www.aascit.org/journal/ajfsn.
[3]
C. Zheng. “Characteristics of Heavy Metal Pollution on Road side Soil along Highway”, 2nd International Conference on Materials Science, Resource and Environmental Engineering, 2017; AIP Publishing, pp. 04003-1-04003-5.
[4]
G. Wang, C. Zeng, F. Zhang, Y. Zhang, C. A. Scott, X. Yan, “Traffic-related trace elements in soils along six highway segments on the Tibetan Plateau: Influence factors and spatial variation”, Science of the Total Environment, 2017; 581-582, pp. 811-821.
[5]
E. Assirey and M. S. El-Shahawi, “Assessment of roadside soil pollution by heavy metal ions and correlation to traffic activities in Madina city, Saudi Arabia: Part I”, Asian J Chem, 2015; Vol. 27, pp. 1160–1166.
[6]
N. M. Rolli, B. I. Karalatti and S. B. Gadi, “Metal Accumulation Profile in Roadside Soil, Grass and Caesalpinia plant Leaves: Bio indicators”, J Environ Anal Toxicol, 2015; Vol. 5 (6), pp. 1-4.
[7]
T. M. Galal and H. S. Shehata, “ Bioaccumulation and translocation of heavy metals by Plantago major L. grown in contaminated soils under the effect of traffic pollution”, Ecol Indic, 2015; 48, pp. 244–251.
[8]
J. Yang, C. Zhang and Y. Tang, “Metal distribution in soils of an in-service urban parking lot”, Environ Monit Assess, 2015; 187: 478, pp. 1-11, DOI 10.1007/s10661-015-4699-8.
[9]
M. Saeedi, Z. M. Hossein, A. Jamshidi, and S. P. Pajooheshfar, “Assessment of heavy metals contamination and leaching characteristics in highway side soils”, Iran. Environ. Monit. Assess. 2009; Vol. 151, pp. 231-241.
[10]
M. Radziemska and J. Fronczyk, “Level and contamination assessment of soil along an expressway in an ecologically valuable area in central Poland”, Int J Environ Res Public Health, 2015; 12, pp. 13372–13387, doi: 10.3390/ijerph121013372.
[11]
A. T. Al-fawwaz and K. A. Al-Khazaleh, “Evaluation of Pb, Cu, Zn and Cd Levels in Some Plants at Roadsides between Mafraq and Jerash”, Jordan, Journal of Environmental Science and Engineering, 2017; A 6, pp. 395-401. doi: 10.17265/2162-5298/2017.08.003.
[12]
M. A. Sheikh, H. M. Juma, S. S. Bakari and H. R. Ali, “Occurrence and Distribution of Heavy Metals in Roadside Soils and Plants along Major Urban Roads of Zanzibar”, Modern Environmental Science and Engineering, 2016; vol. 2 (4), pp. 268-278.
[13]
M. K. Hughes, N. W. Leep and D. A Phipps, “Aerial heavy metal pollution and terrestrial ecosystem”, Advance Ecology Resource, 1980; Vol. 11, pp. 217-224.
[14]
S. P. MeGrah, “Effect of heavy metals from sewage sludge on soil microbes in agricultural ecosystems. In: Ross SM (Ed). Toxic Metals in Soil Plant System”, Join Wiley, Chichester, 1994; UK, pp. 247-274.
[15]
S. B. Agrawal, A. Singh, R. K. Sharma and M. Agrawal, “Bioaccumulation of Heavy metals in Vegetables: A Threat to Human Health”, Terrestrial and Aquatic Environment Toxicology, 2007; Vol. 1 (2), pp. 13-23.
[16]
A. Kumar, Seema and V. Kumar, “Risk Assessment of heavy metals via consumption of contaminated vegetables collected from different agricultural fields and market sites”, Advances in Biochemistry, 2017a; Vol. 5 (3), pp. 47-56.
[17]
M. Pirsaheb, T. Khosravi, K. Sharafi, L. Babajaniand and M. Rezaei, “Measurement of heavy metals concentration in drinking water from source to consumption sites in Kermanshah-Iran”, World App. Sci. J., 2013; Vol. 21 (3), pp. 416-423.
[18]
M. A. Momodu and C. A. Anyakora, “Heavy metals concentration of ground water: The Surulere case study”, Res. J. Environmental and Earth Sci., 2010; Vol. 2 (1), pp. 39-43.
[19]
A. Kumarand V. Kumar, “Seasonal variation of toxic metals in groundwater resources of Kishanganj district, Bihar, India”, J. Chem. Pharm. Res., 2015; Vol. 7 (4), pp. 187-198.
[20]
S. Khan, R. Farooq, S. Shahabaz, M. A. Khan and M. Sadique, “Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals for Population via Consumption of vegetables”, World Applied Science Journal, 2009; Vol. 6 (12), pp. 1602-1606.
[21]
V. Jena, S. Dixit and S. Gupta, “Risk assessment of heavy metal toxicity through edible vegetables from industrial area of Chhattisgarh”, Int. J. Res. Environ. Sci. Technol., 2012; Vol. 2 (4), pp. 124-127.
[22]
S. Gupta, V. Jena, S. Jena, N. Davic, N. Matic, D. Rodajevic and J. S. Solanki, “Assessment of heavy metal contents of green leafy vegetables”, Croot. J. Food Sci. Technol., 2013; Vol. 5 (2), pp. 53-60.
[23]
S. Bakirdere and M. Yaman, “Determination of lead, cadmium and copper in roadside soil and plants in Elazig”, Turkey. Environ. Monit. Assess. 2008; Vol. 136, pp. 401-410.
[24]
P. C. Ogbonna and N. Okezie, “Heavy Metal Level and Macronutrient Contents of Roadside Soil and Vegetation in Umuahia, Nigeria”, Terrestrial and Aquatic Environmental Toxicology, 2011; Vol. 5 (1), pp. 35-39.
[25]
H. M. Naser, S. Sultana, R. Gomes and S. Noor, “Heavy metal pollution of soil and vegetable grown near roadside at Gazipur Bangladesh”, J. Agri. Res., 2012; Vol. 37, pp. 12-17.
[26]
Yan Xuedong, F. Zhang, C. Zeng, M. Zhang, L. P. Devkota and T. Yao, “Relationship between heavy metal concentrations in soils and grasses of roadside farmland in Nepal”, International J. of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2012; Vol. 9, pp. 3209-3226.
[27]
J. Rahuland M. K. Jain, “Effect of Heavy Metals on Some Selected Roadside Plants and its Morphological Study”, Nature Environment and Pollution Technology, 2016; Vol. 15 (4), pp. 1133-1142.
[28]
P. Alexander, “Assessment of heavy metals in roadside surface soil and vegetation along Mubi-Michika major road, Adamawa State”, Int. J Appl. Sci. Biotechnol, 2015; Vol. 3 (3), pp. 445-551.
[29]
H. M. Zakir, N. Sultana and M. Akter, “Heavy metal contamination in roadside soils and grasses: A case study from Dhaka City, Bangladesh”, Journal of Chemical, Biological and Physical Sciences, 2014; Vol. 4, pp. 1661-1673.
[30]
H. S. Abdulhay and M. H. Rathi, “Lead, Cadmium and Nickel contamination of roadside soil and plant leaves in Bagdad City”, J. of chemical and pharmaceutical Research, 2017; Vol. 9 (8), pp. 47-51.
[31]
S. E. Allen, H. M. Grimshaw and A. P. Rowland, “Chemical analysis. In: Moore, P. D., Chapman, S. B. (Eds.) Methods in Plant Ecology”, Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publication, London, 1986; pp. 285-344.
[32]
K. S. Kacholiand M. Sahu, “Levels and Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Soil, Water, and Vegetables of Dares Salaam, Tanzania”, Journal of Chemi Volume 2018 Article ID 1402674, 9 pages, https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/1402674stry,
[33]
K. B. Mmolawa, A. S. Likukuand G, K. Gaboutloeloe, “Assessment of heavy metal pollution in soils along major roadside areas in Botswana”,, African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 2011; Vol. 5, pp. 186-196.
[34]
K. K. Turekian and K. H. Wedepohl, “Distribution of the elements in some major units of the earth’s crust”, Bulletin of Geological Society of America, 1961; Vol. 72, pp. 175-192.
[35]
D. C. Thomilson, D. J. Wilson, C. R. Harrisand and D. W. Jeffrey, “Problem in heavy metals in estuaries and the formation of pollution index”, Helgol. Wiss. Meeresunlter. 1980; Vol. 33, pp. 566-572.
[36]
P. S. Harikumar, U. P. Nasir and M. P. M Raman, “Distribution of heavy metals in the core sediments of tropical wetland system”, International Journal Environmental Science Technology, 2009; Vol. 6 (2) pp. 225-232.
[37]
G. Muller, “Index of Geo-accumulation in sediments of the Rhine River”, Geojournal 1969; Vol. 2, pp. 108-118.
[38]
L. Boszke, T. Sobezynski and A. Kowalski, “Distribution of heavy mercury and other metals in bottom sediments of the middle Odra river (Germany/Poland)”, Polish Journal of Environmental studies, 2004; Vol. 13 (5), pp. 495-502.
[39]
Tech. Rep., “Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater and food stuff” Report of the joint WHO/FAO Volume 2 no. 1, World Health Organization (WHO) and Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), Geneva, Switzerland, 2013.
[40]
G. M. A. Bermudez, R. Jasan, R. Pla and M. L. Pignata, “Heavy metal and trace element concentrations in wheat grains: Assessment of potential non-carcinogenic health hazard through their consumption”, Journal of Hazardous Materials, 2011; Vol. 193, pp. 264–271.
[41]
US-EPA IRIS, (2006). “United States, Environmental Protection Agency”, Integrated Risk Information System. ˂http://www.epa. gov/iris/substS>.
[42]
Environmental Protection Agency (1999) Air quality criteria for lead. Avail-able online: http://www.epa.gov/ttnuatw/hlthef/lead.html.
[43]
S. N. Masoudi, M. G. Sepanlou and M. A. Bahmanyar, “Distribution of lead, cadmium, copper and zinc in roadside soil of Sari- Ghaemshahr road, Iran”, African J. Agri. Res., 2012; Vol. 7, pp. 98-204.
[44]
J. Bai, B. Cui, Q. Wang, H. Gao and Q. Ding, “Assessment of heavy meal contamination of roadside soil in Southwest China. Stochastic”, Environmental Research and Risk Assessment, 2008; Vol. 1, pp. 1-7.
[45]
A. A. K., Abou-arab, M. S. Kawther, M. E. EI Tantaway, R. I. Badeaa and N. Khayaria, “Quality estimation of some contaminants in commonly used medicinal plants in Egyptisam market”, Food Chemistry, 1999; Vol. 6, pp. 357-363.
[46]
E. A. Sereign, T. C. Granato and M. Svartengren, “Estimated toxic levels of heavy metals in soils”, Water Air Soil Pollution 2004; Vol. 86, pp. 13-34.
[47]
D. K. Asthana and M. Asthana, “A Textbook of Environmental Studies”, Chand and Co. Ltd., Ram Nagar, New Delhi, 2006; pp 268-275.
[48]
H. J. M. Bowen, “Environmental Chemistry of the element”, Academic Press, London. 1979.
[49]
European Union, “Heavy Metals in Wastes, European Commission on Environment. Environment”, 2002.
[50]
A. Kubota – Pendias and H. Pendias, “Trace elements in soils and plants”. 1st and 2nd edn CRC press, Boca Raton, Florida, 1984, 1992.
[51]
S. K. Awasthi, “Prevention of food Adulteration Act No. 37 of 1954”. Central and State Rules as Amended for 1999, 3rd ed. Ashoka Law House, New Delhi, 2002.
[52]
W. H. Aloxy, “Agronomic control over environmental cycling of trace elements Advances in agronomy”, 1968; Vol. 20, pp. 235-274.
[53]
A. C. Bhowmick, M. R. Khan, M. I. Moim, N. C. Bhoumic and A. S. M. Saifullah, “ Comparative study of Heavy Lead Pollution in Roadside Soil and Plant by Railway and Highway at Tangail District in Bangladesh”, Universal Journal of Applied Science, 2015; 3 (3), pp. 21-25.
[54]
N. I. Wand, R. D. Reeves and R. R. Brooks, “Lead in soil and vegetation along a New Zealand State highway with low traffic volume”, Environmental Pollution, 1975; Vol. 9, pp. 243-251.
[55]
K. A. Adelasoye and L. O. Alamu, “Accumulation of heavy metal pollutants in soil and vegetation and their effects on soil microbial population on roadsides in Ogbomoso, Nigeria”, Journal of Environmental Science and Water Resources, 2016; Vol. 5 (1), pp. 001-007.
[56]
A. A. K. Hana, and K. S. Al-Bassam, “A survey of lead pollution in Bagdad”, Water air and soil pollution, 1983; Vol. 19, pp. 3-14.
[57]
A. Kumar. V. Kumar and Seema. “Comparative study of levels of heavy metals in unwashed and washed vegetables and their impact on human health”, International Journal of Current, 2017; Vol. 6 (10), pp. 7065-7074.
[58]
E. D. Udosen, E. I. Uwah and I. Jonathan, “Levels of trace metals in washed and unwashed laves of roadsides Vernonia amygdaline obtained in Abak, AkwaIbom State, Nigeria”, International Journal of Advances in Pharmacy, Biology and Chemistry, 2017; Vol. 6 (2), pp. 131-138.
[59]
F. De Nicola, G. Maisto, M. V. Pratiand A. Alfani, “Leaf accumulation of trace elements and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS) in Quercus ilex”, L. Environ. Pollut., 2008; Vol. 153, pp. 376-380.
[60]
U. B. Onyedikachi, D. C. Belonwu and M. O. Wegwu, “ Human health risk assessment of heavy metals in soils and commonly consumed food crops from quarry sites located at Isiagwu, Ebonyi State”, Ovidius University Annals of Chemistry, 2018; Vol. 29 (1), pp. 8-24.
[61]
A. Kumar and Seema, “Accumulation of heavy metals in soil and green leafy vegetables, irrigated with Wastewater”, IOSR-J. Environ. Sci. Toxicol. Food Technol., 2016; 10 (7), 8-19.
[62]
M. W. Kadi,“Soil pollution hazardous to environment: A case study on the chemical composition and correlation to automobile traffic of the roadside soil of Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia”, J. Hazar. Mat., 2009; Vol. 168, pp. 1280-1283.
[63]
F. Zhang, X. Yan, C. Zeng, M. Zhang, S. Shrestha, L. P. Devkota and T. Yao, “Influence of traffic activity on heavy metal concentrations of roadside farmland soil in mountainous areas”, Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, 2012; Vol. 9, pp. 1715-1731.
[64]
J. Aslam, S. A. Khan and S. H. Khan, “Heavy metals contamination in road side soil near different traffic signals in Dubai, United Arab Emirates”, J. Saudi Chem. Society, 2013; Vol. 17, pp. 315-319.
[65]
M. Jian-Hua, C. Chun-Jie, L. Jian and S. Bo, “Heavy metal pollution in soils on railroad side of Zhengzhou-Putian section of Longxi-Haizhou railroad, China”, Pedosphere, 2009; Vol. 19 pp. 121-128.
[66]
A. Falahi-Ardakani, “Contamination of environment with heavy metals emitted from automotives”, Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 1984; Vol. 8, pp. 152-161.
[67]
H. G. Zechmeister, D. Hohennwallner and A. Hanus-Illnar, “Estimation of element deposition derived from road traffic sources by using mosses. Environment Pollution, 2005; Vol. 138, pp. 238-249.
[68]
E. S. Abechi, O. J. Okunola, S. M. J. Zubairu, A. a. Usman and E. Apene, “Evaluation of heavy metals in roadside soils of major streets in Jos metropolis, Nigeria”, J. Environ. Chem. Ecotoxicol., 2010; Vol. 2, pp. 98-102
[69]
Y. Faiz, M. Tufail, M. T. Javed, M. M. Chaudhry and N. Siddique, “Road dust pollution of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn along Islamabad Expressway, Pakistan”, Microchemical Journal, 2009; Vol. 92, pp. 186-192.
[70]
S. Malkoc, B. Yazici and A. S. Koparal, “Assessment of the levels of heavy metal pollution in roadside soils of Eskisehir, Turkey”, Environ. Toxicol. Chemi, 2010; Vol. 29, pp. 2720-2725.
[71]
C. Luo, C. Liu, Y Wang, X. Liu, F. Li, G. Zhang and X. Li, “Heavy metal contamination in soils and vegetables near an e-waste processing site, south china”, J. Hazard. Mater, 2011; Vol. 186 (1), pp. 481-490.
[72]
A. Kumar, and Seema, “Health Risk of Heavy Metals in Vegetables Collected from Different Market Sites and Agricultural Fields of Katihar, Bihar, India”, World Journal of Dairy & Food Sciences, 2017; Vol. 12 (2), pp. 87-93, DOI: 10.5829/idosi.wjdfs.2017.87.93.
[73]
Y. A. A. Waheshi, M. I. El. Gammal, M. S. Ibrahim and M. A. A. Okbah, “Distribution and Assessment of Heavy Metal levels Using geo-accumulation Index and Pollution load Index in Lake Edku Sediments, Egypt”, International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis, 2017; 5 (10) pp. 1-8.
[74]
P. Charzynski, A. Plak and A. Hanaka, “ Influence of the soil sealing on the geo-accumulation index of heavy metals and various factors”, Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 2017; 24 (5), pp. 4801-4811.
[75]
Y. Chen, P. Wu, Y. Shao, and Y. Ying, “Health risk assessment of heavy metals in vegetables grown around battery production area,” Scientia Agricola, 2014; Vol. 71 (2), pp. 126–132.
[76]
O. Akoto, F. Bismark Eshun, G. Darko and E. Adei, “Concentrations and health risk assessments of heavy metals in fish from the Fosu Lagoon,” International Journal of Environmental Research, 2014; Vol. 8 (2), pp. 403–410.
Open Science Scholarly Journals
Open Science is a peer-reviewed platform, the journals of which cover a wide range of academic disciplines and serve the world's research and scholarly communities. Upon acceptance, Open Science Journals will be immediately and permanently free for everyone to read and download.
CONTACT US
Office Address:
228 Park Ave., S#45956, New York, NY 10003
Phone: +(001)(347)535 0661
E-mail:
LET'S GET IN TOUCH
Name
E-mail
Subject
Message
SEND MASSAGE
Copyright © 2013-, Open Science Publishers - All Rights Reserved