Heavy Metals Contamination in Vegetables Grown Near Road-Side Soil at Seemanchal Zone of Bihar, India and Their Effect on Consumers
This study investigated the level of heavy metals in road side soil and vegetation as influenced by vehicular emission. Soil and vegetable samples were collected from 5, 25, 50 and 1000m (control) sampling locations of Seemanchal zone. The range of Pb, Cd and Ni content in soil and vegetables were 0.08 ± 0.01 - 30.50 ± 1.47, 0.02 ± 0.01 -10.31± 0.58, 0.01 ± 0.00 - 5.41±0.872mg/kg and 0.03 ± 0.01 - 25.36 ± 0.03, 0.01± 0.00 -7.23 ± 0.02, 0.01 ± 0.00 - 4.29 ± 0.02mg/kg respectively. The heavy metal contents in vegetables followed the same sequence of soil as Pb > Cd > Ni and decrease with increase of distance from road edge. Among the test vegetables spinach had highest metal content followed by cauliflower and ladyfinger. Contamination assessment states of the heavy metal in soil was determined by using mathematical models in term of contamination factor (CF), pollution load index (PLI), and geo-accumulation index (I-geo). All models approved that soil was polluted by Pb at 5 and 25m, and moderately polluted by Cd at all three distances from road edge. The average daily intake for Pb (0.437 mg/person/day) and for Cd (0.148mg/person/day) was above the provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDA) as suggested by FAO/WHO; however hazard quotient (HQ) and hazard index (HI) of all metals were < 1, suggested that consumption of these vegetables can be considered safe with no risk to human health. Strongly positive correlations suggested that each paired metals originate from common anthropogenic activates and high rate of human activities such as automobile emission. Therefore present study suggests that vehicular emission play significant role in elevating the contamination level of metals in soil and vegetables, which may pose a threat to the quality of soil and vegetables, with consequence of health of consumers via consumption of vegetables.
Heavy Metal, Roadside Soil and Vegetable, Traffic Emissions, CF, PLI, I-geo, Health Risk Assessment
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