Congyan Wang, School of the Environment and Safety Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, P. R. China; Institute of Environment and Ecology, Academy of Environmental Health and Ecological Security, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, P. R. China.
Jun Liu, School of the Environment and Safety Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, P. R. China; Institute of Environment and Ecology, Academy of Environmental Health and Ecological Security, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, P. R. China.
Hongguang Xiao, School of the Environment and Safety Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, P. R. China; Institute of Environment and Ecology, Academy of Environmental Health and Ecological Security, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, P. R. China.
Jiawei Zhou, School of the Environment and Safety Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, P. R. China; Institute of Environment and Ecology, Academy of Environmental Health and Ecological Security, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, P. R. China.
The progressively diversified in the types of acid deposition may complicate the pronounced effects of acid deposition on the structure, function, and stability of ecosystems. Meanwhile, leaf functional traits are important indices in relation to the relationship between various environmental factors and leaf functioning of plant species. This study aims to assess the effects of five types of acid deposition with different SO42− to NO3− ratios (1:0, sulfuric acid; 3:1, sulfuric-rich acid; 1:1, mixed acid; 1:3, nitric-rich acid; 0:1, nitric acid) on the leaf functional traits of one of the common crops Amaranthus tricolor L.. Sulfuric-rich acid deposition and mixed acid deposition significantly decreased leaf shape index of A. tricolor. This may be attributed to the decreased soil pH values mediated by acid deposition which could show negative effects on leaf growth of A. tricolor. Sulfuric-rich acid deposition triggered more negative effects on leaf functional traits (especially leaf length, leaf width, leaf shape index, and leaf N concentration) of A. tricolor than nitric-rich and/or nitric acid deposition. This may be attributed to nitric deposition possibly exerting a fertilizing effect but not sulfuric deposition. Another reason may be the difference in exchange capacity with hydroxyl groups (OH–) between SO42– and NO3−. Therefore, the ratio of SO42− to NO3− in acid deposition may be a key factor determining the effects of acid deposition on leaf functional traits of A. tricolor.
Zhang JE, Ouyang Y, Ling DJ (2007) Impacts of simulated acid rain on cation leaching from the Latosol in south China. Chemosphere 67:2131–2137.
Wang WX, Xu PJ (2009) Research progress in precipitation chemistry in China. Progress in Chemistry 21:266–281.
Zhang YJ, Chang HR (2012) The impact of acid rain on China’s socioeconomic vulnerability. Natural Hazards 64:1671–1683.
Xu HQ, Zhang JE, Ouyang Y, Lin L, Quan GM, Zhao BL, Yu JY (2015) Effects of simulated acid rain on microbial characteristics in a lateritic red soil. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 22:18260–18266.
Schaberg PG, DeHayes DH, Hawley GJ (2001) Anthropogenic calcium depletion: a unique threat to forest ecosystem health? Ecosystem Health 7:214–228.
Wang CY, Guo P, Han GM, Feng XG, Zhang P, Tian XJ (2010) Effect of simulated acid rain on the litter decomposition of Quercus acutissima and Pinus massoniana in forest soil microcosms and the relationship with soil enzyme activities. Science of the Total Environment 408:2706–2713.
Wang CY, Han GM, Jia Y, Feng XG, Guo P, Tian XJ (2011) Response of litter decomposition and related soil enzyme activities to different forms of nitrogen fertilization in a subtropical forest. Ecological Research 26:505–513.
Wang RL, Staehelin C, Dayan FE, Song YY, Su YJ, Zeng RS (2012) Simulated acid rain accelerates litter decomposition and enhances the allelopathic potential of the invasive plant Wedelia trilobata (creeping daisy). Weed Science 60:462–467.
Lv YN, Wang CY, Jia YY, Wang WW, Ma X, Du JJ, Pu GZ, Tian XJ (2014) Effects of sulfuric, nitric and mixed acid rain on litter decomposition, soil microbial biomass, and enzyme activities in subtropical forests in China. Applied Soil Ecology 79:1–9.
Balasubramanian G, Udayasoorian C, Prabu PC (2007) Effects of short–term exposure of simulated acid rain on the growth of Acacia nilotica. Journal of Tropical Forest Science 19:198–206.
Chen J, Wang WH, Liu TW, Wu FH, Zheng HL (2013) Photosynthetic and antioxidant responses of Liquidambar formosana and Schima superba seedlings to sulfuric-rich and nitric-rich simulated acid rain. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 64:41–51.
Wang CY, Xiao HG, Zhao LL, Liu J, Wang L, Zhang F, Shi YC, Du DL (2016) The allelopathic effects of invasive plant Solidago canadensis on seed germination and growth of Lactuca sativa enhanced by different types of acid deposition. Ecotoxicology 25:555–562.
Tu J, Wang HS, Zhang ZF, Jin X, Li WQ (2005) Trends in chemical composition of precipitation in Nanjing, China, during 1992–2003. Atmospheric Research 73:283–298.
Liu ZQ, Chen JL (2007) Research on present situation and development tendency of atmospheric environmental quality in China. Electric Power Environmental Protection 23:23–27.
Xu RK, Ji GL (2001) Effects of H2SO4 and HNO3 on soil acidification and aluminum speciation in variable and constant charge soils. Water Air Soil Pollution 129:33–43.
Wang Z, Zhang L (2012) Leaf shape alters the coefficients of leaf area estimation models for Saussurea stoliczkai in central Tibet. Photosynthetica 50:337–342.
Legner N, Fleck S, Leuschner C (2014) Within-canopy variation in photosynthetic capacity, SLA and foliar N in temperate broad-leaved trees with contrasting shade tolerance. Trees 28:263–280.
Xiao HG, Wang CY, Liu J, Wang L, Du DL. 2015. Insights into the differences in leaf functional traits of heterophyllous Syringa oblata under different light intensities. Journal of Forestry Research 26:613–621.
Wang CY, Liu J, Xiao HG, Du DL. 2016. Response of leaf functional traits of Cerasus yedoensis (Mats.) Yü li to serious insect attack. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies 25:333–339.
Jeong N, Moon JK, Kim HS, Kim CG, Jeong SC (2011) Fine genetic mapping of the genomic region controlling leaflet shape and number of seeds per pod in the soybean. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 122:865–874.
Wang CY, Xiao HG, Liu J, Zhou JW, Du DL. 2016. Insights into the effects of simulated nitrogen deposition on leaf functional traits of Rhus typhina. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies 25:1279–1284.
Wang CY, Xiao HG, Shi YC, Liu J, Zhou JW, Zhang F, Zhao LL. 2016. Insights into the differences in leaf functional traits of three varieties of Osmanthus fragrans with different flower colors. Plant Chemistry and Ecophysiology 1:1001.
Kardel F, Wuyts K, Babanezhad M, Vitharana UWA, Wuytack T, Potters G, Samson R (2010) Assessing urban habitat quality based on specific leaf area and stomatal characteristics of Plantago lanceolata L.. Environmental Pollution 158:788–794.
Scheepens JF, Frei ES, Stöcklin J (2010) Genotypic and environmental variation in specific leaf area in a widespread Alpine plant after transplantation to different altitudes. Oecologia 164:141–150.
Jung K, Chang SX (2012) Four years of simulated N and S depositions did not cause N saturation in a mixed wood boreal forest ecosystem in the oil sands region in northern Alberta, Canada. Forest Ecology and Management 280:62–70.
Jacobsen JS, Bethard T, Heller LI, Lassoise JP (1990) Response of Picea rubens seedlings to intermittent mist varying in acidity, and in concentrations of sulfur-, and nitrogen-containing pollutants. Physiologic Plantarum 78:595–601.
Jarchow ME, Liebman M (2013) Nitrogen fertilization increases diversity and productivity of prairie communities used for bioenergy. GCB Bioenergy 5:281–289.
Christ M, Zhang YM, Likens GE, Driscoll CT (1995) Nitrogen retention capacity of a northern hardwood forest soil under ammonium sulfate additions. Ecological Applications 5:802–812.
Dick WA, Cheng L, Wang P (2000) Soil acid and alkaline phosphatase activity as pH adjustment indicators. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 32:1915–1919.