Physio-Chemical Behavior of the Leachate Due to Landfilling of Municipal Solid Waste and Secondary Wastewater on Groundwater Quality: A Review
Groundwater is a major source of water in many parts of the world for different purposes viz. agronomical, domestic, industrial etc. However rapid development of living standards, high population growth and massive urban migration, have resulted in the demand of water dramatically. This leads to diminution of groundwater both qualitatively and quantitatively due to anthropogenic activities. With respect to groundwater degradation from human activities, we then have two significant aspects 1) Contamination based on non-engineered municipal solid waste (MSW) dumping and 2) Partially treated or secondary wastewater (SWW) application on land. In the recent years, increase in the quantity of SWW originating from wastewater treatment processes has resulted in significant disposal problems. Recharge of SWW is favoured as a viable management practice because it provides further filtering and biological treatment of the partially treated wastewater through the soils for recharging local water resources. When the capacity of soil to retain these materials declines due to continuous loading of SWW, the soil properties may change and in turn soil may release these materials into the groundwater. Consequently groundwater contamination has become a long-term problem where contamination persists in aquifers for decades without treatment because groundwater travel times are relatively slow. Since the contaminants persist for a long time in the groundwater which adversely affects the groundwater quality, it has become an imminent study area for social causes. The review paper gives a broader outline on MSW and SWW about their generation, composition, disposal, treatment, usage etc. But the study was focused on groundwater contamination due to MSW and SWW leachates. Most of the studies showed that the contamination was taking place separately at different locations, whereas in Puducherry, India a unique situation prevails where the co-disposal of MSW and SWW takes place concurrently at the same location. So a field investigation is underway to study the pollution aspects of these two factors and based on the investigation suitable remedial measures will be thought of.
Solid Waste, Secondary Wastewater, Leachate, Groundwater Contamination
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