Treatment of Industrial Wastewater Containing Phenol Using the Electro-Fenton Technique in Gas Sparged Cell
The present study is concerned with evaluating the performance of Electro-Fenton process using iron electrodes as an alternative wastewater treatment technique. In this method, hydrogen peroxide is externally added into the system while a sacrificial iron anode is used as Fe+2 source so Fenton reaction was formed in the reactor. The batch reactor was stirred by introducing nitrogen gas through G4 type sintered glass and a synthetic solution of phenol was used to simulate wastewater. The effect of various process parameters such as: pH, gas superficial velocity, current density, H2O2 concentration, initial phenol concentration, and NaCl concentration on the electro-Fenton reaction was investigated to achieve maximum degradation efficiency. The batch experimental results revealed that the overall COD reduction reached 97% for initial phenol concentration 50 mg/l. The optimum pH, superficial gas velocity, current density was 3, 1.18 cm/s, 1.7 mA/cm2 and H2O2 concentration was 1500 mg/l, respectively. The kinetic study revealed that the rate of COD reduction followed a pseudo first order reaction. Energy consumption and iron electrode consumption were calculated per gram of COD removed.
Electro-Fenton, Phenol, Wastewater, Iron Electrode, Gas Sparged Cell
H. Tavallali and M. Cheraghi, “The Removal of Phenol From Environmental Wastewater Samples By Use of Modified Alumina-Coated Magnetite Nanoparticle Based On Sholid-Phase Extraction Method", Asian Journal of Biochemical and Pharmaceutical Research, Vol. 1, Issue 4, pp: 2231-2560, 2011.
B. C. Meikap and G. K. Rot, “Removal of phenolic compounds from industrial wastewater by semifluidized Bed Bio-Reactor" Journal of the 1PHE, India, Vol. 3, 1997.
G. Busca, S. Berardinelli, C. Resini, L. Arrighi, “Technologies for the removal of phenol from fluid streams: a short review of recent developments”, Journal of Hazard. Material, 160 265–288, 2008.
M. Pimentel, N. Oturan, M. Dezotti, and M. A. Oturan, “Phenol degradation by advanced electrochemical oxidation process electro-Fenton using a carbon felt cathode,” Applied Catalysis B, vol. 83, no. 1-2, pp. 140–149, 2008.
M. Manafi, M. R. Mehrnia, and M. H. Sarrafzadeh, “Phenol Removal from Synthetic Wastewater by Alcaligenes Faecalis: Online Monitoring", International Journal of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Vol.2, 2011.
A.S Stasinakis, “Use of selected advanced oxidation process (AOPs) for wastewater treatment – a mini review", Global NEST Journal, Vol. 10, No.3, pp 376-385, 2008.
I. Faisal, “Oxidation of Phenolic Wastewater by Fenton's Reagent" Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Vol. 10 No. 2, p 35-42, 2009.
M. M. Nassar, "Energy consumption and mass transfer during adsorption using gas and mechanical stirring systems", Water Research, Volume 32, Issue 10, pp. 3071–3079, 1998.
NSS Martinez, JF Fernandez, XF Segura, AS Ferrer, “Pre-oxidation of an extremely polluted industrial wastewater by the Fentons reagent”. J Hazard Mater, 101: 315–322, 2003.
E. Yüksela, I. Ayhan S, Mahmut Ozacar,“The removal of sodium dodecyl sulfate in synthetic wastewater by peroxi-electrocoagulation method.", Chemical Engineering Journal 152, 347–353, 2009.
American Society for Testing and Materials. Standard test methods for chemical oxygen demand (dichromate oxygen demand) of water. D1252-95, ASTM Annual Book of Standard. Philadelphia, 1995.
C.C. Jiang and J.F. Zhang, “Personal review: Progress and prospect in electro-Fenton process for wastewater treatment.” J. Zhejiang Univ-Sc. A, 8(7), 1118-1125, 2007.
J.A. Peres, L.M. Carvalho, R. Boaventura, C. Costa, “Characteristics of phydroxybenzoic acid oxidation using Fenton’s reagent”, Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Volume A 39, No. 11–12, pp 2897–2913, 2004.
M.M. Ghoneim, H.S. El-Desoky, N.M. Zidan, “Electro-Fenton oxidation of Sunset Yellow FCF azo-dye in aqueous solutions”, Desalination, Volume 274, Issues 1–3, Pages 22–30, 2011.
M. Zhou, Q. Yu, L. Lei, G. Barton, “Electro-Fenton method for the removal of methyl red in an efficient electrochemical system”, Separation and Purification Technology, Volume 57, Issue 2, Pages 380–387, 2007.
C.T. Wang, J.L. Hu, W.L. Chou, Y.M. Kuo, “Removal of color from real dyeing wastewater by electro-Fenton technology using a three-dimensional graphite cathode”, Journal of Hazardous Materials, Volume 152, Issue 2, Pages 601–606, 2008.
Z. Ai, T. Mei, J. Liu, J. Li, F. Jia, L. Zhang, J. Qiu, “Fe@Fe2O3 core-shell nanowires as an iron reagent. 3. Their combination with CNTs as an effective oxygen-fed gas diffusion electrode in a neutral electro-Fenton system, J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 14799–14803, 2007.
H. Zhang, H.J. Choi, C.P. Huang, “Optimization of Fenton process for the treatment of landfill leachate.” J. Hazard. Mater. Vol. 125, pp.166–174, 2005.
P.V. Nidheesh, R. Gandhimathi “Trends in Electro-Fenton Process for Water and Wastewater treatment: An Overview." Desalination, 299: 1-15. Rivas, 2012.
L Jiang, X Mao, “Degradation of phenol-containing wastewater using an improved Electro-Fenton Process" Journal of Electrochemical science, 7: 4078-4088, 2012.
M. Kobya, E .Demirbas, A. Dedeli, M.T. Sensoy, “Treatment of rinse water from zinc phosphate coating by batch and continuous electrocoagulation process". Journal of Hazard. Material, Vol. 173, pp. 326– 334, 2010.
L Yafeng, G Yuzhuo, T Cuicui, “Influencing Factors Research of Phenol Wastewater Treatment by Cathode Electro-Fenton Method.", ICAIC 2011, Part I, CCIS 224, pp. 726–733, 2011.
A. Babuponnusami and K. Muthukumar, “Advanced oxidation of phenol: a comparison between Fenton, electro-Fenton, sono-electro-Fenton and photo-electro-Fenton processes” Chemical Engineering Journal, vol. 183, pp. 1–9, 2012.