Welcome to Open Science
Contact Us
Home Books Journals Submission Open Science Join Us News
Peak and Non-Peak Hour Noise-Air Quality and State of Exposure to Noise-Air Pollution at Curbside Open-Air Microenvironment of Kolkata City, India
Current Issue
Volume 2, 2015
Issue 3 (May)
Pages: 18-27   |   Vol. 2, No. 3, May 2015   |   Follow on         
Paper in PDF Downloads: 44   Since Aug. 28, 2015 Views: 1930   Since Aug. 28, 2015
Anirban Kundu Chowdhury, Department of Civil Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India.
Anupam Debsarkar, Department of Civil Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India.
Shibnath Chakrabarty, Department of Civil Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India.
In this study an effort was made to investigate the variation of combined Noise-Air quality and quality of combined exposure to Noise-Air pollution at curbside open-air microenvironments of Kolkata city, India in peak (day and evening) and non-peak (after-noon) traffic hours. Accordingly two sets of data (in summer and in winter) on air quality in terms of concentration of PM2.5 and NO2 (μg/m3, 24-h-TWA), traffic noise level [Leq dB(A), 8-h-TWA], and traffic volume (vehicles/4-h) were collected from the microenvironments of 38 locations of the city in day (08:00 a.m. – 12:00 noon), after-noon (12:00 noon – 04:00 p.m.) and evening (04:00 p.m. – 08:00 p.m.) traffic hours. Corresponding meteorological data on air temperature (°C), relative humidity (%) and wind speed (km/h) was recorded form a roof-top automated weather monitoring station. Data of the two seasons of respective traffic hours and station were averaged prior to any mathematical analysis to wipe out the seasonal variation in observations. Combine Noise-Air quality of the microenvironment of the city was determined in terms of the City Noise-Air index. The combined Noise-Air quality of the microenvironments of the city was the worst (0.39±0.26) in peak (evening) and the best (0.44±0.22) in non-peak (after-noon) traffic hour. Overall, the combined Noise-Air quality of the microenvironments was ‘Poor’ to ‘Fair’ throughout the traffic hours. ‘Very-weak’ to ‘weak’ positive correlation between concentration of the air pollutant(s) and traffic noise level throughout the traffic hours indicated limited chances of correlated exposure to the environmental stressors at the microenvironments of the city. Quality of combined exposure to Noise-Air pollution was determined in terms of the combined exposure factor (CEF). ‘Very good’ quality of combined exposure (1.53±0.55, 1.66±0.54, and 1.38±0.43 respectively in day, after-noon and evening traffic hours) to Noise-Air pollution was observed throughout the traffic hours at the microenvironments of the city.
Curbside Open-Air Microenvironment, Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient, City Noise-Air Index, Combined Exposure Factor (CEF)
Allen RW, Davies H, Cohen MA, Mallach G, Kaufman JD, Adar SD. The spatial relationship between traffic-generated air pollution and noise in 2 U. S. cities. Environmental Research. 2009;109:334-342.
Can A, Rademaker M, Van Renterghem T, Mishra V, van Poppel M, Touhafi A, Theunis J, De Baets B, Botteldooren D. Correlation analysis of noise and ultrafine particle counts in a street canyon. Science of the Total Environment. 2011;409(3):564-572.
Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) of India. National Ambient Air Quality Standards, Central Pollution Control Board Notification (18th November), New Delhi, India. 2009.
Chang TY, Liu CS, Bao BY, Li SF, Chen TI, Lin YJ. Characterization of road traffic noise exposure and prevalence of hypertension in central Taiwan. Science of the Total Environment. 2011;409:1053-1057.
Chowdhury KA, Debsarkar A, Chakrabarty S. A study on co-exposure to traffic related air pollution and noise for an important urban road of Kolkata city, India. Indian Journal of Air Pollution Control. 2011; XI(2):34-40.
Chowdhury KA, Debsarkar A, Chakrabarty S. Analysis of day time traffic noise level: A case study of Kolkata India. International Journal of Environmental Sciences and Research. 2012;2(1):114-118.
Chowdhury KA, Debsarkar A, Chakrabarty S. Novel methods for assessing urban air quality: Combined air and noise pollution approach. Journal of Atmospheric Pollution. 2015a; 3(1):1-8.
Chowdhury KA, Debsarkar A, Chakrabarty S. Quantification and characterization of the correlation between traffic noise level and concentrations of traffic related air pollutants in the curbside urban environment of Kolkata city, India. Pollution Research. 2015b Accepted for publication in issue 2.
Davies HW, Vlaanderen JJ, Henderson SB, Brauer M. Correlation between co-exposures to noise and air pollution from traffic sources. Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 2009;66:347-350.
Delfino RJ, Tjoa T, Gillen DL, Staimer N, Polidori A, Arhami M, Jamner L, Sioutas C, Longhurst J. Traffic-related air pollution and blood pressure in elderly subjects with coronary artery disease. Epidemiology. 2010;21:396-404.
Foraster M, Deltell A, Basagana X, Medina-Ramon M, Aguilera I, Bouso L, Grau M, Phuleria HC, Rivera M, Slama R, Sunyer J, Targa J, Künzli N. Local determinants of road traffic noise levels versus determinants of air pollution levels in a Mediterranean city. Environmental Research. 2011;111:177-183.
Freire C, Ramos R, Puertas R, Lopez-Espinosa MJ, Julvez J, Aguilera I, Cruz F, Fernandez MF, Sunyer J, Olea N. Association of traffic-related air pollution with cognitive development in children. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health. 2010;64:223-228.
Gan QW, Mc Lean K, Brauer M, Chiarello AS, Davies WH. Modeling population exposure to community noise and air pollution in a large metropolitan area. Evioronmental Research. 2012;116:11-16.
Hoffmann B, Moebus S, Mohlenkamp S, Stang A, Lehmann N, Dragano N, Schmermund A, Memmesheimer M, Mann K, Erbel R, Jöckel KH. Residential exposure to traffic is associated with coronary atherosclerosis. Circulation. 2007;116:489-496.
LinaresC, Diaz J, Tobias A, De Miguel JM, Otero A. Impact of urban air pollutants and noise levels over daily hospital admissions in children in Madrid: A time series analysis. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health. 2006;79:143-152.
Orru H, Jogi R, Kaasik M, Forsberg B. Chronic traffic-induced PM exposure and self-reported respiratory and cardiovascular health in the RHINE Tartu cohort. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2009;6:2740-2751.
OSHA Occupational Noise Regulations – 1910.95. Occupational Health and Safety Administration (OSHA), U. S. Dept. of Labour, Washington DC. (accessed in 2015) Available from: https://www.noisemeters.com/help/osha/
Ross Z, Kheirbk I, Clougherty JE, Ito K, Matte T, Markowitz S, Eisl H. Noise, air pollutants and traffic: Continuous measurement and correlation at a high-traffic location in New York City. Environmental Research. 2011;111:1054-1063.
Schwartz J, Litonjua A, Suh H, Verrier M, Zanobetti A, Syring M. Traffic related pollution and heart rate variability in a panel of elderly subjects. Thorax. 2005;60:455-461.
Schwela D, Kephalopoulos S, Prasher D. Confounding or aggravating factors in noise-induced health effects: air pollutants and other stressors. Noise & Health. 2005;7(28): 41-50.
Selander J, Nilsson ME, Bluhm G, Rosenlund M, LindqvistM, Nise G. Long-term exposure to road traffic noise and myocardial infarction. Epidemiology. 2009;20:272-279.
Silva TL, Mendes GFJ. City Noise-Air: An environmental quality index for cities. Sustainable Cities and Society. 2012;4:1-11.
Sørensen M, Hvidberg M, Andersen ZJ, Nordsborg RB, Lillelund KG, Jakobsen J, Tjønneland A, Overvad K, Raaschou-Nielsen O. Road traffic noise and stroke: A prospective cohort study. European Heart Journal. 2011;32(6):737-744.
Tobias A, Diaz J, Saez M, Alberdi JC. Use of Poisson regression and Box–Jenkins models to evaluate the short-term effects of environmental noise levels on daily emergency admissions in Madrid, Spain. European Journal of Epidemiology. 2001;17(8):765-771.
Tonne C, Melly S, Mittleman M, Coull B, Goldberg R, Schwartz J. A case-control analysis of exposure to traffic and acute myocardial infarction. Environmental Health Perspectives. 2007;115(1):53-57.
van Kempen E, Fischer P, Janssen N, Houthuijs D, van Kamp I, Stansfeld S, Cassee F. Neurobehavioral effects of exposure to traffic-related air pollution and transportation noise in primary schoolchildren. Envioronmental Research. 2012;115:18-25.
Vlachokostas C, Achillas C, Michailidou VA, Moussiopoulos N. Measuring combined exposure to environmental pressures in urban areas: An air quality and noise pollution assessment approach. Environment International. 2012;39:8-18.
Weber S. Spatio-temporal covariation of urban particle number concentration and ambient noise. Atmospheric Environment 2009;43:5518-5525.
Weber S, Litschke T,. Variation of particle concentrations and environmental noise on the urban neighbourhood scale. Atmospheric Environment. 2008;42:7179-7183.
Open Science Scholarly Journals
Open Science is a peer-reviewed platform, the journals of which cover a wide range of academic disciplines and serve the world's research and scholarly communities. Upon acceptance, Open Science Journals will be immediately and permanently free for everyone to read and download.
Office Address:
228 Park Ave., S#45956, New York, NY 10003
Phone: +(001)(347)535 0661
Copyright © 2013-, Open Science Publishers - All Rights Reserved