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Pharmacognostic and Physicochemical Profile of the Leaves of Synsepalum dulcificum (Schumach. & Thonn.) Daniell
Current Issue
Volume 7, 2019
Issue 2 (June)
Pages: 12-17   |   Vol. 7, No. 2, June 2019   |   Follow on         
Paper in PDF Downloads: 32   Since Sep. 6, 2019 Views: 215   Since Sep. 6, 2019
Authors
[1]
Olamilekan Lanre Awotedu, Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria, Jericho Hills, Ibadan, Nigeria.
[2]
Paul Oluwatimilehin Ogunbamowo, Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria, Jericho Hills, Ibadan, Nigeria.
Abstract
Authentication and standardization of Synsepalum dulcificum using pharmacognostic and physicochemical profile is an avenue to check and create a correct taxonomic information that could help in the proper identification and its use as herbal remedy. The pharmacognostic profile evaluated includes the macroscopy, microscopic features, and chemo microscopic characters. Also the physicochemical analysis of the dried powdered sample was examined using standard chemical methods. The macroscopic features and microscopic evaluation of the leaf sample revealed that the pharmacognostic value are important in the proper authentication of the plant. Macroscopic features reveals that the leaf is light green, with faint odour and bitter taste. The leaves are simple, opposite, and entire having a slightly hard and smooth texture. The shape is small and cylindrical, with alternate arrangement and the apex is obtuse. The chemo-microscopic analyses also reveal that the leaf contains lignin, starch, calcium oxalate crystals and cellulose. The microscopic feature shows that the leaf epidermis at both lower and upper epidermis is rectangular to polygonal and slightly undulating. The anticlinal walls are very wavy and irregular at the lower epidermis, but regular at the upper epidermis. The cell density (425μm) are numerous at the upper epidermis. The stomata are paracytic and frequent at the abaxial epidermis, but absent at the adaxial epidermis. Meanwhile, trichomes are absent. The physicochemical analyses also show high values for loss on drying (11.49%), methanol extractive (16.64%), water extractive (19.42%), total ash (11.21%), water soluble ash (4.83%) and acid insoluble ash (1.02%) which falls within the WHO (World Health Organization) standards for crude drugs from medicinal plants. Information gathered from these studies can be used as good indicators in the identification and standardization of herbal plants usage as monograph in crude drugs.
Keywords
Authentication, Standardization, Taxonomy, Micromorphology, Pharmacopoeia
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