Welcome to Open Science
Contact Us
Home Books Journals Submission Open Science Join Us News Unsubscribe Page
Analyzing and Comparing the Physico-Chemical and Mineral Component of Cocoa (Theobroma Cacao L.) Pod and Bean
Current Issue
Volume 7, 2019
Issue 2 (June)
Pages: 18-24   |   Vol. 7, No. 2, June 2019   |   Follow on         
Paper in PDF Downloads: 6   Since Sep. 17, 2019 Views: 60   Since Sep. 17, 2019
Authors
[1]
Oguntokun Michael Ogunmola, Department of Animal Production and Health (Nutrition Laboratory), Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo state, Nigeria.
[2]
Oguntokun Esther Adeola, Department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo state, Nigeria.
[3]
Nwaokobia Kingsley, Department of Agricultural and Bio-Environmental Engineering Technology: Federal Polytechnic, Auchi, Edo State, Nigeria.
[4]
Adeola Emmanuel Abiodun, Department of Animal Science, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria.
Abstract
Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) is a major, essential economic, global crop and has several nutritional benefits. This study evaluated the physical, chemical and nutritive properties of the pod and bean of cocoa. Colour, Length, width, thickness, sphericity, roundness, porosity, mass, true and bulk densities were the physical properties observed. While Mineral Ash, Volatile Matter, Fixed Carbon, Crude Fibre, Crude Fat, Moisture Content, Crude Protein and Total Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Sulphur, Nitrogen were the parameters observed in Proximate and Ultimate analysis respectively. It was observed that the bean of cocoa the highest amount in all the Proximate and Ultimate analysis assayed except in mineral Ash and oxygen where the pod has 10.78% and 70.69±0.07 respectively. These values were analyzed using AOAC methods. The physical properties of cocoa (shape, size, weight, volume, density, surface area, colour and sphericity) which are relevant to engineering and industrial application were selected for study. These were determined using standard tests and experiments. It is observed that the bean has the highest values in all the physical properties studied except in thickness and sphericity where the pod has tge highest. The moisture content of the cocoa pod and beans was between the range of 51.39 and 87.65 (% wb) and the ash content was between the range of 10.78% and 8.87% (wb) respectively. Noticeably, the fat content ratio (the most important value of cocoa bean) found was over 10%, thus nutritional, pharmacological and industrial importance to man cannot be over emphasized.
Keywords
Theobromine, Cocoa, Proximate Analysis, Ultimate Analysis, Bean Dimension, Chemical Property
Reference
[1]
A. O. A. C. (1990). Official methods of analysis. (15 th ed.) Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Washington D. C. Pp 106.
[2]
A. O. A. C., (2000): Official methods of analysis of AOAC, International 17th Edition, Gaithersburg, M. D, USA Association of Analytical Communities.
[3]
A. O. A. C International. (1999). AOAC official method 948.22. Fat (crude) in Nuts and Nut products.
[4]
Akubugwo, I. E., Chinyere, G. C., & Ugbogu, A. C. (2008). Comparative studies on oils from some common plant seeds in Nigeria. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 7 (4), 570-573. http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/pjn.2008.570.573.
[5]
Aviara, N. A. and M. A. Haque, (2001). Moisture dependence of thermal properties of sheanut kernel. J. Food Eng., 47: 109-113.
[6]
Aviara, N. A., E. Mamman and B. Umar, (2005). Some physical properties of balanitesaegyptiaca nuts. Biosyst. Eng., 92 (3): 325-334.
[7]
Bart-Plange, A. and Baryeh, E. A, (2003). The Physical Properties of Category B Cocoa Beans. Journal of Food Engineering. 20 (1): 219-227.
[8]
Burubai W, Akor A. J., Igoni, A. H., Puyate, Y. T. (2007). Effect of loading rate and pre-heating time on the strength properties of African nutmeg (Monodora myristica). International Agrophysics, 21, 317-322.
[9]
De Sena, A. R.; de Assis, S. A.; Branco, A. (2011). Analysis of theobromine and related compounds by reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection: An update (1992–2011). Food Technol. Biotechnol. 49, 413–423.
[10]
Dutta, S. K., V. K. Nema and R. K. Bhardwaj, (1988). Thermal properties of gram. J. Agric. Eng. Res., 39: 269-275.
[11]
Fahimdanesh, M., & Bahrami, M. E. (2013). Evaluation of Physicochemical Properties of Iranian Mango Seed. International Food Research Journal. IPCBEE vol. 53 (2013) © (2013) IACSIT Press, Singapore.
[12]
FAOSTAT. FAO Statistic Division. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Available online: http://faostat3.fao.org/home/E (accessed on 31 December 2018).
[13]
ICCO, International Cocoa Organization, (2011). Also available at www.icco.org. Internet surfed on September, 2018.
[14]
Jain, R. K. and S. Bal, (1997). Physical properties of pearl millet. J. Agric. Eng. Res., 66: 85-91.
[15]
James C. J (1995). The Analytical Chemistry of Foods. Chapman and Hall Press, New York, Page 86.
[16]
Kasabe, A. J.; Badhe, G. B. (2010). Extraction and estimation of theobromine in marketed tea by HPTLC and UV method. Int. J. Appl. Biol. Pharm. Technol. Vol. 1, 367–373.
[17]
Nguyen, V. T. (2014). Mass proportion, proximate composition and effects of solvents and extraction parameters on pigment yield from cacao pod shell (TheobromacacaoL.). J. Food Process. Preserv. 39, 1414–1420. [CrossRef].
[18]
Nwaokobia K., Oguntokun M. O., Okolie P. L., Ogboru R. O. and Idugboe O. D. (2017). Evaluation of the chemical composition of Persea americana (Mill) pulp and seed. Journal of Bioscience and Biotechnology Discovery Vol. 3 (4), pages 83-89.
[19]
Nwaokobia K., Olorode E. M, Ogboru R. O. (2019). Some Mechanical and Nutritive Properties of Cola Acuminata (P. Beauv.) Schott & Endl. and Cola Nitida (Vent.) Schott & Endl. American Journal of Environmental Engineering and Science. Vol. 6, No. 1, 2019, pp. 1-10.
[20]
Nwaokobia. K., Oghomwen O. H. and Omoregie P. O. (2018). Some Engineering Properties and Natural Durability of Avocado (Persea americana Mill.) Pulp and Seed. World Scientific News, 97: 125-138.
[21]
Ogboru R. O, Idibie C. A, Nwaokobia. K. (2019). Evaluation of Proximate, Ultimate and Mineral Composition of Irvingia gabonensis Hook F. (Dika Nut Seed and Shell). American Journal of Biological Chemistry. Vol. 7, No. 2, pp. 26-30.
[22]
Ogboru, R. O., Idibie, C. A., Okolie, P. L. and Agboje, I (2016). Determination of proximate and mineral elements composition in the bark of Dacryodesedulis 9G. Don) H. J. Lam. Research Journal of Chemical Sciences, Vol. 6 (4) pp 12-16.
[23]
Silva Caldas, A. P., Chaves, L. O., Linhares Da Silva, L., de Castro Morais, D., & Gonçalves Alfenas, R. D. C. (2017). Mechanisms involved in the cardioprotective effect of avocado consumption: A systematic review. International Journal of Food Properties, 20 (sup2), 1675-1685.
[24]
Udeme J. O., Kpobari, W. N., Akaninwor, J., and Awakw, A. A. (2013). Proximate, Phytochemical and mineral elements composition of some edible fruits grown in oil producing community of Rivers State, Nigeria. IOSR Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology 5 (2): 38-46.
[25]
Van Tang Nguyen and Nghia Huu Nguyen (2017). Proximate Composition, Extraction, and Purification of Theobromine from Cacao Pod Husk (Theobroma Cacao L.). Technology, 05-00014.
[26]
Deshpande, S. D., Bal, S., Ojha, T. P., (1993). Physical properties of soybean. Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research. 56: 89-98.
[27]
Otori A. A., Mann A. (2014). Determination of Chemical Composition, Minerals and Anti-Nutritional Factors of Two Wild Seeds from Nupeland, North Central Nigeria. American Journal of Chemistry and Application. Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 20-26.
Open Science Scholarly Journals
Open Science is a peer-reviewed platform, the journals of which cover a wide range of academic disciplines and serve the world's research and scholarly communities. Upon acceptance, Open Science Journals will be immediately and permanently free for everyone to read and download.
CONTACT US
Office Address:
228 Park Ave., S#45956, New York, NY 10003
Phone: +(001)(347)535 0661
E-mail:
LET'S GET IN TOUCH
Name
E-mail
Subject
Message
SEND MASSAGE
Copyright © 2013-, Open Science Publishers - All Rights Reserved