Optimal Fruit Collection and Seeding Date, Seedling Growth of Baobab in West Kordofan, Sudan
The study investigated the effect of fruit collection date, seed planting date and seed pre-germination treatment on seed germination and seedling growth at the nursery, beside the effect of grazing control for seedling and seed germination and survival at the site. Seed pre germination treatments (sulfuric acid (96%), electric burner, dry heat and control) were applied for seed collected in October, November, December and January of the following year and weighed. Treated seeds were dried in January, April and July. Seed germination was recorded and seedling growth was measured weekly from week 5 to week 13 and leaves number per seedling was recorded at week 13. The results showed that the seeds collection date, planting date and scarification treatment showed significant effect on seed germination and to some extent on seedling height and leaves number. Seeds collected in January, had significantly higher germination percent than those collected in October, indicating importance of seed maturity and suitable fruit collection date. Seeds planted in July showed higher germination percentages and longer seedlings and more leaves than earlier planting (January and April). These results also, showed the importance of seed maturity. The effect of seed treatments was significant on seeds planted in January and April. Seed coat scarification using electric burner or concentrated sulphuric acid gave higher germination percentage, especially for seeds planted in January and April. The field study showed significantly higher survival percentage for transplanted and germinating seedlings in protected site compared to unprotected one. This indicates the importance of protection from animals grazing. Accordingly, the study recommends protection of Baobab sites in the state.
Baobab, Seed Collection, West Kordofan, Regeneration, Germination
Abutaba, Yahia I. M., Missa A. Suliman, Salih O. Tutu, Osman E. A. Abdelkareem and Muneer E. S. Eltahir, 2017. Natural Variation in Fruit and Seeds Characteristics of Adansonia digitata L. in Kordofan States, Sudan, International Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries.
Adona, A. (2008). Propagation technique of baobab (Adansonia digitata) vegetative multiplication and tests of germination per substrates, scarification and seeds origin in Benin, M.Sc thesis, University of Abomey Calavi, Benin.
Assogbadjo, A. E., Kakai, R. G., Edon, S., Kyndt, T., Sinsin, B., 2010. Natural variation in fruit characteristics, seed germination and seedling growth of Adansonia digitata L. in Benin. New Forests.
Danthu, P., J. Roussel, A. Gaye, and E. H. EL Maz- Zoudi 1995. Baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) seed pre- treatments for germination improvement. Seed Sci. and Technol. 23, 469–475.
EL Amin, H. M., 1990. Trees and Shrubs of the Sudan. Ithaca Press Exeter, UK, ISBN 0863721168.
Eltahir, Muneer E. S., Kamal F. El Khalifa, Mohamed E. Taha, Hatim M. A. Elamin, Osman S. Adlan., 2015. Scanty Regeneration of Baobab (Adansonia digitata) in West Kordofan State, Sudan. International Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. Vol. 3, No. 6, 2015, pp. 206-212.
Gebauer Jens. Yahia O. Adam. Aida Cunı´ Sanchez. Dietrich Darr. Muneer E. S. Eltahir....., 2016. Africa’s wooden elephant: the Baobab tree (Adansonia digitata L.) in Sudan and Kenya: a review. Genet Resour Crop Evol. DOI 10.1007/s10722-015-0360-1.
Mohamed, Sayda., M. 1995. The influence of positioning of seed during sowing in relation to seed shape and germination type on the germination of seeds of some tree species. NTSC Publication No. 4. National Tree Seed Centre, the Forestry Research Centre, Soba, Khartoum, Sudan.
North, Rabea, Dietrich Darr, Jens Gebauer, Dagmar Mithöfer, and Willis Omondi. 2014. Promoting the Use of Baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) in Rural Communities in Eastern Africa.” “Tropentag 2014, Prague, Czech Republic.
Sidibe, M., Williams, J. T., 2002. Baobab. Adansonia digitata. Fruits for the Future, 4. International Centre for Underutilized Crops, Southampton, UK, p. 100.
Venter, Sarah M, and E. T. F. Witkowski. 2010. Forest Ecology and Management Baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) Density, Size-Class Distribution and Population Trends between Four Land-Use Types in Northern Venda, South Africa, 259: 294–300. doi: 10.1016/j.foreco.2009.10.016.
Venter, Sarah Marguerite. 2012. The Ecology Of Baobab trees (Adansonia digitata L.) In Relation To Sustainable Utilization In Northern Venda, South Africa. PhD thesis, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannerburg.