Welcome to Open Science
Contact Us
Home Books Journals Submission Open Science Join Us News
Effect of N-butanol Extract of Ficus glumosa Leaves on CCl4-induced Hepatotoxicity and Oxidative Stress in Rats
Current Issue
Volume 8, 2021
Issue 1 (March)
Pages: 12-18   |   Vol. 8, No. 1, March 2021   |   Follow on         
Paper in PDF Downloads: 15   Since Apr. 28, 2021 Views: 582   Since Apr. 28, 2021
Authors
[1]
Michael Sunday Abu, Department of Biochemistry, Federal University Wukari, Wukari, Nigeria.
[2]
Ojochenemi Ejeh Yakubu, Department of Biochemistry, Federal University Wukari, Wukari, Nigeria.
[3]
Chinedu Imo, Department of Biochemistry, Federal University Wukari, Wukari, Nigeria.
[4]
Roy Emochone Yohanna, Department of Biochemistry, Federal University Wukari, Wukari, Nigeria.
[5]
Oche Okpe, Department of Biochemistry, Joseph Sarwuan Tarka University, Makurdi, Nigeria.
[6]
Rukaiyat Lawal Mashi, Department of Biology, Federal College of Education, Kastina, Nigeria.
Abstract
Liver plays crucial roles in transforming and clearing toxic chemical substances ingested into the body and thus needs to be investigated for wide spectrum of protective and ameliorative therapeutic agents that are readily available and affordable. In this study, ameliorative effects of fractionated crude methanol extract of Ficus glumosa leaves against hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress generated by CCl4 in albino rats was evaluated. The crude methanol extract of Ficus glumosa leaves was re-dissolved in 300 ml of distilled water and repeatedly partitioned in a separating funnel with 400 ml of n-hexane for three times with vigorous shaking. At each portioning, the mixture was allowed to stand for 30 minutes to separate into distinct layers of hexane and aqueous. The n-hexane fraction was then collected and concentrated using water bath. The aqueous layer was then repeatedly partitioned with 400 ml of ethylacetate for three times to obtain ethylacetate fraction. The aqueous layer from the above was then saturated with distilled water and repeatedly partitioned with 400 ml of n-butanol for three times after which the n-butanol fraction was obtained. A total of 35 albino rats were used. The rats were distributed into 7 groups of 5 animals each. Rats were induced once weekly with 1ml/kg/body weight of 50% Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in olive oil and treated daily with three different graded doses (100 mg/kg/bw, 300 mg/kg/bw and 500 mg/kg/bw) of n-butanol fraction of Ficus glumosa leaves extract and 100 mg/kg/bw silymarin for 21 days. Consequently, the administration of n-butanol fraction significantly (p<0.05) reduced liver marker enzymes (Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP)), bilirubin, malondialdehyde (MDA) but significantly (p<0.05) increase serum proteins, catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels in the treated rats as compared to the untreated rats. The results suggest that n-butanol fraction of methanol extract of Ficus glumosa leaves could possibly ameliorate hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress induced by CCl4 in the albino rats.
Keywords
Ficus glumosa, Hepatotoxicity, Oxidative Stress, Carbon-tetrachloride, Silymarin
Reference
[1]
Aigbokhan, E. I. (2014). Annotated checklist of vascular plants of southern Nigeria: a quick reference guide to vascular plants of southern Nigeria: a systematic approach, University of Benin Press, Benin City, p89.
[2]
Akram, E., Pejman, M., Masoud, E. T., Ali, H. R. and Shahabaldin, S. (2010). Hepatoprotective effect of pantothenic acids on carbon tetrachloride-induced toxicity in rats. Experimental Clinical Sciences Journal, 11: 748-759.
[3]
Aluko, B. T., Oloyede, O. L. and Afolayan, A. J. (2013). Hepatoprotective activity of Ocimum americanum leaves against paracetamol-induced liver damage in rats. American Journal of Life Sciences, 1 (2): 37-42.
[4]
Ama, U. I., Emmanuel, I. U., Christ, E. and Okechukwu, U. (2013). Cadmium-induced toxicity and the hepatoprotective potentials of aqueous extract Jessiaea nervosa leaf. Advance Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 3 (2): 309-313.
[5]
Amador, E and Wacker, W (1962). Analytical methods for quantitative determination of liver marker enzymes, Clinical Chemistry, 1962: 8:343.
[6]
Atawodi, S. E., Yakubu, O. E. and Umar, I. A. (2013). antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of Parinari curatellifolia root. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 15: 523-528
[7]
Babalola, O. O., Ojo, O. E. and Oloyede, F. A. (2011). Hepatoprotective activity of aqueous extract of the leaves of Hyptis suaveolens (I.) poit on acetaminophen induced hepatotoxicity in rabbit. Research Journal of Chemical Sciences, 1 (7): 85-88.
[8]
Chavan, S., D., Patil, S. B. and Naikwade, N. S. (2012). Biochemical and Histopathological Studies of Butea Monosperma (Lam) Taub Leaves on Paracetamol-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Albino Rats. Journal of Pharmacy Research, 5 (8): 4006-4008.
[9]
Doumas, B. T., Watson, W. A. and Biggs, H. G. (1971). Albumin standards and the measurement, Clinica Chimica Acta, 31: 87-96.
[10]
Etim, O. E., Akpan, E. J. and Usoh, I. F., (2008). Hepatotoxicity of carbon tetrachloride: protective effect of Gongronema latifolium. Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 21 (3): 269–274.
[11]
Evan, S. and Milan, J. (2013). New insight in bilirubin metabolism and their clinical implications. World Journal of Gastroenterology, 19 (38): 6398–6407.
[12]
Fidele, N., Djedouboum, A., Blaise, K., Paulin, N., Adjia, H. and Theophile, D. (2014b). Acute and sub-chronic oral toxicity of aqueous extract leaves of ficus glumosa del. (moraceae) in rodents. Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology, 3 (4): 206-213
[13]
Fine, J. (1935). Quantitative determination of serum proteins by colorimetric method, Biochemistry Journal, 29: 799.
[14]
Haussament, T. U. (1977). Quantitative determination of serum alkaline phosphatase, Clinica Chimica Acta., 35: 271-273.
[15]
Jendrassik, L. and Grof (1938). In-vivo determination of total and direct bilirubin in serum. Journal of Biochemistry, 299: 81-88.
[16]
Jude, E. O., Michael, B. B. and Herbert, O. M. (2016). Hepatoprotective activity of Mammea Africana ethanol stem-bark extract. Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine, 6 (2): 248-259.
[17]
Kadiiska, M. B. and Gladen, B. C. (2005). Biomarker of oxidative stress study II: are oxidation products of lipids, proteins and DNA markers of CCl4 poisoning?, Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 38: 698-710.
[18]
Khan, M. R., Marium, A., Shabbir, M., Saeed, N. and Bokhari, J. (2012). Antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of Oxalis corniculata against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced injuries in rats. African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 6 (30): 2255-2267.
[19]
Kim, H. Y., Kim, J. K., Choi, J. H., Jung, J. Y., Oh, W. Y., Kim, D. C., Lee, H. S, Kim, Y. S., Kang, S. S., Lee, S. H., and Lee, S. M. (2010). Hepatoprotective effect of pinoresinol on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damaged in mice. Journal of Pharmacological science, 112 (1): 105-112.
[20]
Kwazo, H. A., Faruq, U. Z., Dangoggo, S. M., Malami, B. S., and Moronkola, D. O. (2015). Antimicrobial activity and phytochemical screening of crude water extract of the stem-bark of ficus glumosa. Scientific Research and Essays, 10 (5): 177-183.
[21]
Laetitia, K., Alan, B. and Catherine, R. (2012). Carbon tetrachloride mediated lipid peroxidation induces early mitochondrial alteration in mouse liver. Laboratory Investigation, 92: 396-410.
[22]
Levy, G. N. and Brabec, M. J. (1984). Binding of carbon tetrachloride metabolite to rat hepatic mitochondria DNA. Toxicology Left, 22: 229-234.
[23]
Li, W., Ming, Z., Yi-Nan, Z., Jing, L., Ying-Ping, W., Yun-Jing, W., Jian, G., Ying, J., Hui, W. and Li, C. (2011). Snailase Preparation of Ginsenoside M1 from Protopanaxadiol-Type Ginsenoside and Their Protective Effects against CCl4-Induced Chronic Hepatotoxicity in Mice. Molecules, 16: 10093-10103.
[24]
Manibusa, M. K., Odin M. and Eastmond, D. A. (2007). Postulated carbon tetrachloride mode of action: a review. Journal of Environmental Science Health Part C. Environmental carcinogen Ecotoxicity Review, 5: 185-209.
[25]
Mariam, G. E., Hassenane, M. M., Ibrahim M. F., Nermeen, M. S. and Abodfetoh, M. A. (2015). Evaluation of protective and therapeutic role of moringa oleifera leaf extract on CCL4-induced genotoxicity, haematoxicity and hepatotoxicity in rats. International Journal of PharmTech Research, 7(2): 392-415.
[26]
Mohajeri, D, Amouoghli, T. B., Doustar, Y. and Nazeri, M. (2011). Protective Effect of Turnip Root (Brassica Rapa. L) Ethanolic Extract on Early Hepatic Injury in Alloxanized Diabetic Rats. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Science, 5 (7): 748-756.
[27]
Momoh, J., Longe, A. O., Damazio, O. A. and Eleyowo, O. O. (2015). Hepatoprotective effect of ethanolic leaf extract of Vernonia amygdalina and Azadirachta indica against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in sprague-dawley albino rats. American Journal of Pharmacological Sciences, 3(3):79-86.
[28]
Muhammad, A., Aisha, A., Azeem, M. A., Navia-ul-Zafar and Ahmad, S. I. (2013). Hepatoprotective effect of barrisal (herbal drug) on carbon tetrachloride induced hepatic damage in rats. African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 7 (15): 776-784.
[29]
Orwa, C., Mutua, A., Kindt, R., Jamnadass, R., and Anthony, A. (2009). Agroforestry databasea: A tree version 4.0, 2009, http//www.worldagroforestry.org.
[30]
Paul, O. A. (2013). Physicochemical properties and rheological behaviour of ficus glumosa gum in aqueous solution. African Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry, 7 (1): 35-43.
[31]
Reham, A., Mohamed, Reham, S., Ramadan and Lamiaa, A. A. (2009). Effect of Substituting Pumpkin Seed Protein Isolate for Caseinon Serum Liver Enzymes, Lipid Profile and Antioxidant Enzymes in CCl4-intoxicated Rats. Advances in Biological Research, 3 (1-2): 09-15.
[32]
Umar, Z., Mohammed, A. and Tanko, Y. (2013). Effects of ethanol leaf extract of Ficus glumosa on fasting blood sugar and lipid profile in diabetic rats. Niger Journal of Physiological Society, 28: 99-104.
[33]
Weber, L. W., Boll, M. and Stampfl, A. (2003). Hepatoxicity and mechanism of action of haloalkanes: carbon tetrachloride as toxicological model. Critical Reviews in Toxicology, 3 (3): 185-209.
Open Science Scholarly Journals
Open Science is a peer-reviewed platform, the journals of which cover a wide range of academic disciplines and serve the world's research and scholarly communities. Upon acceptance, Open Science Journals will be immediately and permanently free for everyone to read and download.
CONTACT US
Office Address:
228 Park Ave., S#45956, New York, NY 10003
Phone: +(001)(347)535 0661
E-mail:
LET'S GET IN TOUCH
Name
E-mail
Subject
Message
SEND MASSAGE
Copyright © 2013-, Open Science Publishers - All Rights Reserved