Tourism and Environmental Degradation in the Russian Federation
Mass tourism is one of the main factors that contributes to economic growth and is a major objective to most of the countries nowadays. It has a lot of positive impact on country’s economic performance, however, there is always a trade-off between economic and environmental incentives. Therefore, mass tourism has a driving force to environmental degradation especially if its contribution to pollution exceeds the optimum level. The main aim of this paper, is to test the impact of tourism on the Russian Federation’s environment, to see the major actions of tourists that lead to environmental deterioration during the 2000s and forward such as, dumping the garbage, harming the wildlife, emitting large gas emissions and energy consumptions. In addition, revealing Russia’s problems with tourism development and ecological footprints. Finally, we are going to suggest some solutions to maintain sustainable development and conservation of resources including the usage of natural gases instead of electricity, using efficient light bulbs and water flow controllers in order to limit consumptions. Also, training programs are made by institutions to enhance the employees’ skills and raise their awareness of modern technology. Lastly and most importantly, Russia turned out to be one of the top countries maintaining sustainable development and has good future to being green.
Tourism, Environmental Degradation, Ecological Footprint, Sustainable Development
Banday, U. & Ismail, S. (2017). Does tourism development lead positive or negative impact on economic growth and environment in BRICS countries? A panel data analysis. Economics Bulletin, 37 (1). 553-567. Retrieved from: http://www.accessecon.com/Pubs/EB/2017/Volume37/EB-17-V37-I1-P50.pdf
Hardin, G. (2001). The Tragedy of the Commons. The Social Contract. 26-35. Retrieved from: http://www.garretthardinsociety.org/articles_pdf/tragedy_of_the_commons.pdf
Henry, L. and Douhovnikoff, V. (2008). Environmental Issues in Russia. The Annual Review of Environment and Resources. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.environ.33.051007.082437
Ignatiev, A. (2015). Development of the Tourism Industry in the North of Russia Based on the Environment Features. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 6 (5). DOI: 10.5901/mjss.2015.v6n5s4p387
Koncul, N. (2008). Environmental Issues and Tourism. Ekon Misao Praksa Dbk. God XVI, 2. 157-166. Retrieved from: file:///C:/Users/Owner/Downloads/08_koncul.pdf.
Lumpina, L. (2016). Responsible Tourism: Environmental Actions in Russian Hotel Industry. Retrieved from: https://www.theseus.fi/bitstream/handle/10024/106868/Thesis%20-%20Lolita%20Lumpina.pdf?sequence=1
(n.d). City Travel and Tourism Impact. World Travel and Tourism Council. Retrieved from: https://www.wttc.org/-/media/files/reports/economic-impact-research/countries-2017/russianfederation2017.pdf
(n.d). Tourism and the Environmental Degradation. Tourism Impacts and Influences. Retrieved from: http://www.cpas-egypt.com/pdf/Ghada%20Farouk/Ph.D/005%20%20%20Chapter-4-Tourism%20and%20the%20Environmental%20Degradation.pdf
Rahman, A. (2003). A Critique of “The Tragedy of the Commons”. 50 Journal of International Affairs, 7 (2). Retrieved from: file:///C:/Users/Owner/Desktop/ABM%20Ziaur%20Rahman.pdf
Rani, J. & Rani, S. (2016). BRICS Countries: Green and Sustainable Economies. Research Journal of Recent Sciences, 5 (9). 38-44. Retrieved from: http://www.isca.in/rjrs/archive/v5/i9/6.ISCA-RJRS-2016-059.pdf
Nozick, R., 1993. 77ie Nature of Rationality.
Ostrom, E., 1999. Coping with tragedies of the commons. Annual review of political science, 2 (1), pp. 493-535.
Mathieson, A. and Wall, G., 1982. Tourism, economic, physical and social impacts. Longman.
Sandars, J., Homer, M., Pell, G. and Croker, T., 2008. Web 2.0 and social software: the medical student way of e-learning. Medical teacher, 30 (3), pp. 308-312.
FSSS. Website of the Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved from: http://www.gks.ru/wps/wcm/connect/rosstat_main/rosstat/en/main/