Welcome to Open Science
Contact Us
Home Books Journals Submission Open Science Join Us News
Application of Tobit Model in Identifying Causes of Poverty in Urban Slum
Current Issue
Volume 2, 2017
Issue 3 (June)
Pages: 31-36   |   Vol. 2, No. 3, June 2017   |   Follow on         
Paper in PDF Downloads: 25   Since Aug. 15, 2017 Views: 577   Since Aug. 15, 2017
Nsikak-Abasi Aniefiok Etim, Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria.
Glory Emmanuel Edet, Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria.
Although rural areas were typically thought of as regions of poverty, however, with rapid shift from rural to urban life, poverty is migrating to urban areas. An empirical study was conducted in the slum of Agege, Lagos, Nigeria in order to identify perceived causes and estimate the determinants of poverty in the slum. Simple random sampling procedure was employed to select a total of sixty (60) slum dwellers for the study. With the aid of questionnaire, primary data were obtained from slum residents. Data were analysed using tables, charts and Tobit regression model. Results of analysis showed the dominance (53 percent) of men in the slum. Results also revealed that majority of slum dwellers (70 percent) were within economically active age. Findings revealed a varied perception of causes of poverty among the slum dwellers to include lack of money, material possession, basic amenities, joblessness, violence, inability to earn a living and low living standard. Findings further showed that as slum dwellers advanced in age, more employment opportunities and income sources were created with lower poverty levels. Results further showed that a room increase per person, reduced the likelihood of poverty in the slum. Also, increase in family size and walking time to the nearest health facility raised the likelihood of being poor by 43.13 and 6.85 percent respectively. Result of analysis also revealed that the educational level of slum dwellers was inversely related to poverty as more educated slum dwellers were less prone to be poor. Increasing educational and training opportunities for residents, reforming existing housing policy and integrating slum residents in urban planning and development are suitable and sustainable policy options that should be pursued in order to reduce poverty among slum residents.
Causes, Poverty, Slum, Nigeria
Ahmed, A. U., Hill R. V., Smith L. C., Weismann D. M., Franken Berger, T. (2007). The World’s Most Deprived. Characteristics and Causes of Extreme Poverty and Hunger 2020. Discussion Paper 43. International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, D. C.
Chen S. and Ravallion M. (2007). Absolute Poverty Measures for the developing world 1981-2004. PNAS. 104(43).16757-167562.
Dercon, S. and Krishnan, P. (1998). “Changes in Poverty in Rural Ethiopia 1989 – 1995: Measurement Robustness Test and Decomposition”. Centre for the Study of African. Economies Working paper series 98-7.
Etim, N. A. (2007). Analysis of Poverty Status of Rural Farm Households in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Unpublished Ph.D Dissertation. Department of Agricultural Economics, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umdike, Abia State, Nigeria.
Etim, N. A. and Edet G. E. (2013): Comparison of Poverty among Peri-Urban Farming Households in Uyo, Nigeria. American Journal of Advanced Agricultural Research. 1(1):1-9.
Etim, N. A. and Edet, G. E. (2014). Factors Determining Urban Poverty of Farming Households in a Tropical Region. American Journal of Experimental Agriculture. 4(3):322-335.
Fan S, Sawker A. and Shields G. (2007). How to Mobilise Public Resources to Support Poverty Reduction 2010 Focus Brief on the World’s Poor and Hungry People. International Food Policy Research Institute.
FOS (Federal Office of Statistics) 1999: Poverty and Agricultural Sector in Nigeria. Federal Office of Statistics, Abuja, Nigeria.
House, W. J. (1989). Demography, Employment and Poverty at the Household Level in Urban Juba, Southern Sudan (Population and Labour Policies Programmes) WEP Working Paper No. 168. Geneva ILO.
Kombe W. J. and Krerbach V. (2000). Informal Land Management in Tanzania, Spring Research Series 29.
Lanjouw P. and Ravallion M. (1994). Poverty and Household Size. Policy Research Working Paper 1332. The World Bank, Washington, D. C.
Lipton, M. (1983). Labour and Poverty. World Bank Staff Working. Washington, D. C. The World Bank 616.
Lukeman, Y. Bake, A. I. Omole, F. K. Nwokoro, I. I. C. and Akinbogun, S. O. (2012). Socio-economic Attributes of Residents of Slum and Shanty Areas of Lagos State, Nigeria. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences. 5(9): 656-662.
Matuschke I. Rapid Urbanization and Food Security: Using Food density maps to identify future food security hotspots. Contributed Paper Presented at the International Association of Agricultural Economist Conference, China, August 16-22:2009. p.4.
Montgomery M. R. The urban transformation of the developing world. Journal of Science; 319:761-764.
NPC (National Population Commission). (2006).“Population Census of the Federal Republic of Nigeria.” Analytical Report at the National Population Commission, Abuja.
Overman H. G. and Venables A. J. Cities in the developing world. Unpublished Manuscript. Department of Geography. London School of Economics.
Rakodi, C. and Leduka R. (2005). Informal Land Delivery Processes and Access to land for the Poor. A Comparative Study of Six African Cities. Policy Brief 6. Birmingham, International Development Department, Birmingham University.
Schubert, R. (1994). Poverty in Developing Countries. Its Definition, Extent and Implications.
Skuse A. and Cousins T. (2007). Spaces of Resistance: Informal Settlement, Communication and Community Organisation in a Cape Town Township, Urban Studies 44(5/6); 979-995.
Tobin J. Estimation of Relationship for Limited Dependent Variables. Econometrica, 1958;26: 26-36.
Udoh, E. J. and N. A. Etim and G. O. Akankpo (2006). Estimating Technical Efficiency of Waterleaf Production in a Tropical Region. Journal of Vegetable Science 12(3):5-13.
Udoh, E. J. and Etim, N. A. (2008). Measurement of Farm –Level Efficient of Water-Leaf (Talinum triangulare) Production Among City Farmers in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Journal of Sustainable Development in Agriculture andEnvironment. 3(2):47-54.
UN (United Nations) 2008. World Urbanisation Prospects. The 2007 Revision. New York. UN-Habitat (2003). The Challenge of Slums. Nairobi:
World Bank (1991). Indonesia Strategy for a Sustained Reduction in Poverty. Washington, D. C.
World Bank (1996). Nigeria Poverty in the Midst Plenty. The Challenge of Growth with Inclusion. A World Bank Poverty Assessment. Population and Human Resources Division, West Africa Department, African Region, Report No. 14733.
Open Science Scholarly Journals
Open Science is a peer-reviewed platform, the journals of which cover a wide range of academic disciplines and serve the world's research and scholarly communities. Upon acceptance, Open Science Journals will be immediately and permanently free for everyone to read and download.
Office Address:
228 Park Ave., S#45956, New York, NY 10003
Phone: +(001)(347)535 0661
Copyright © 2013-, Open Science Publishers - All Rights Reserved