Welcome to Open Science
Contact Us
Home Books Journals Submission Open Science Join Us News
Correlation Between Petrochemical Analysis and Antibacterial Activities of Rocket Meal Extracts or Oil
Current Issue
Volume 2, 2017
Issue 5 (October)
Pages: 31-40   |   Vol. 2, No. 5, October 2017   |   Follow on         
Paper in PDF Downloads: 14   Since Feb. 2, 2018 Views: 517   Since Feb. 2, 2018
Husain Abd Allah El-Fadaly, Agriculture Microbiology Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Damietta University, Damietta, Egypt.
Sherif Mohamed El-Kadi, Agriculture Microbiology Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Damietta University, Damietta, Egypt.
Mostafa Maher El-Moghazy, Animal Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Damietta University, Damietta, Egypt.
Ahmed Ali Soliman, Animal Nutrition Research Researcher Department, Animal Production Research Institute (APRI), Agricultural Research Center (ARC), Giza, Egypt.
Mahmoud Salama Mahmoud El-Haysha, Animal Nutrition Research Researcher Department, Animal Production Research Institute (APRI), Agricultural Research Center (ARC), Giza, Egypt.
Glucosinolate (GSL) fillings in rocket salad (Eruca sativa Mill.) are evaluated and institute to have significant antibacterial and antioxidant activities. Moreover, raw/crude protein (CP), Ether Extract (EE)/crude lipid, ash, raw/crude fiber (CF), total sugars, reducing sugar, non-reducing sugars, total carbohydrate, and soluble carbohydrate are determined in E. sativa meal. The main minerals contents of roquette seed meal are calcium (475.70), magnesium (516.80), potassium (2074.90), sodium (181.30) and phosphorus (802.40mg/100 gm) elements. On the other side, microelements of Eruca sativa meal are plumber (0.6984), nickel (0.2491), chromium (0.3957), copper (4.1978), zinc (1.1061), cobalt (1.1807), cadmium (0.7402), manganese (0.1708) and iron (0.1496ppm) on dry weight. Phytochemical analysis of Eruca sativa seeds meal detected the contents of phenolic glycosides, tannins, flavonoids, saponins, glycosides, alkaloids, terpenes, and resins. All phyto-component initiate in extract illustrations responsible for different bioactivities including antimicrobial activity against various infective microbe. Acid, peroxide, iodine, saponification and ester values of taramira seed oil were determined. Antimicrobial action of Eruca sativa meal extracts was evaluated against different bacterial strains (Gram positive, G+ and negative, G- strains).
Eruca sativa, Chemical Composition, Phytochemical Analysis, Extracts, Oil, Glucosinolates (GLs), Antibacterial
Morales, M.; Janick, J. (2002). Arugula: a promising specialty leaf vegetable. In: Janick J, Whipkey A (Eds) Trends in New Crops and New Uses, ASHS Press, Alexandria, VA, pp 418-423.
Dawoud, S. (2010). Agriculture and Land Reclamation (MALR), the Economic Affairs Sector, the General. Department of Agricultural Statistics, Egypt; data of the Food Balance Sheet.
Carig, W. J. (1999). Health–promoting properties of common herbs. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 70: 491-9.
Flanders, A.; Abdulkarim, S. M. (1985). The composition of seed and seed oils of taramira (E. sativa). J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 62: 1134-1135.
Talalay, P.; Fahey, J. W. (2001). Phytochemicals from cruciferous plants protect against cancer by modulating carcinogen metabolism. J. Nutr., 131: 3027-3033.
Bradley, P. R. (1992). British Herbal Medicine Association. British herbal compendium, Vol. 1. Rolniczych. 434: 395-399.
Leung, A. Y.; Foster, S. (1996). Drugs and cosmetics, 2nd Encyclopedia of common Natural ingredients used in food New York: John Wiley & sons, Inc.
Kim, S. J., Jin, S.; Ishii, G. (2004). Isolation and structural elucidation of 4-(B-d-lucopyranosyldisulfanyl) butyl glucosinolate from leaves of rocket salad (E. sativa L) and its antioxidative activity. Biosci. Biotechnol. 68: 2444-2450.
Abdo, M. A. (2003). Using Egyptian E. sativa seed meal in broiler ration with or without microbial phytase. Egypt J. Nutr. Feeds, 6: 97-114.
EL-Nattat, W. S.; EL-Kady, R. I. (2007). Effect of Different Medicinal Plant Seeds Residues on the Nutritional and Reproductive Performance of Adult Male Rabbits. Int. J. Agri. Biol., 9 (3): 479-485.
Rinzler, C. A. (1990). The Complete Book of Herbs, Spices and Condiments. Facts on File, New York, Oxford.
Barillari, J.; Canistro, D.; Paolini, M.; Ferroni, F.; Pedulli, G. F.; Iori, R.; Valgimigli, L. (2005). Direct antioxidant activity of purified glucoerucin, the dietary secondary metabolite contained in rocket (E. sativa Mill) seeds and sprouts. J. Agric. Food. Chem., 6: 2475-82.
Badee, A. Z. M.; Hallabo, S. A.; Aal, M. A. A. (2003). Biological Evaluation of Egyptian Eruca sativa seeds and leaves, Egypt. J. Food Sci., 31: 67-78.
Haristoy, X.; Fahey, J. W.; Scholtus, I.; Lozniewski, A. (2005). Evaluation of the antimicrobial effects of several isothiocyanates on Helicobacter pylori. Planta Med., 71: 326-30.
Bendich, A. (1989). Carotenoids and the immune response. J Nutr. 119 (1): 112-5.
Sattari, S.; Dryden, W. F.; Eliot, L. A.; Jamali, F. (2003). Despite increased plasma concentration, inflammation reduces potency of calcium channel antagonists due to lower binding to the rat heart. British J. Pharm., 139, 945-954.
Fahey, J. W.; Zalcmann, A. T.; Talalay, P. (2001). The chemical diversity and distribution of glucosinolates and isothiocyanates among plants. Phytochemistry, 56 (1): 5-51.
Lamy, E.; Schröder, J.; Paulus, S.; Brenk, P.; Stahl, T.; Mersch-Sundermann, V. (2008). Antigenotoxic properties of E. sativa (rocket plant), erucin and erysolin in human hepatoma (HepG2) cells towards benzo(a) pyrene and their mode of action. Food Chem. Toxicol. 46: 2415–2421.
El-Hinnawy, S. I.; El-Tahawi, B. S.; Fouad, K. R. (1975). Biochemical studies on some oleaginous seeds of Cruciferae plants. GrasasAceit. 26 (3): 147–149.
AOAC. Association of Official Analytical Chemists (2000). Official Methods of Analysis. 17th Ed. The Association, Washington DC. USA.
Masuko, T.; Minami, A.; Iwasaki, N.; Majima, T.; Nishimaru, S.; Lee, Y. C. (2005). Carbohydrate analysis by a phenol–sulfuric acid method in micro plate format. Anal. Biochem., 339: 69-72.
Miller, G. L. (1959). Use of dinitro salicylic acid reagent for determination of reducing sugar. Anal. Chem., 31: 426-428.
Fekete, S.; Gippert, T. (1986). Digestibility and nutritive value of nineteen feedstuffs. J. Appl. Rabbit Res., 9: 103-108.
Hesse, P. R. (1971). Alex Book of Soil Chemical Analysis. JhanMurry (Publishers) Ltd., 50 Albemarle Street, London.
Cottenie, A.; Verloo, M.; Kiekens, L.; Velghe, G.; Camerlynck (1982). Chemical analysis of plant and soil. Lab. Anal. And Agro chemistry Satiate Univ. Gent., Belgium.
Page, A. (1982). Method of soil analysis part 2. chemical and microbiological properties. 2nd edition. American Society of Agronomy and Soil Science Society, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.
Allen, S.; Grimshaw, H. M.; Parkinson, J. A.; Quarmby, C. (1974). Chemical Analysis of Ecological Materials. Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 521.
Harborne, J. B. (1988). Phytochemical methods, 2nd Ed. Published in USA by Chapman and Hall 29, west 35th street, New York.
Murray, R.; Rosenthal, S.; Kobayashi, S.; Pfaller, A. (1998). Medical Microbiology. 3rd Ed. St. Louis: Mosby, p. 161.
Sardari, A.; Gholamreza, M.; Daneshtalab, M. (1998). Phytopharmaceuticals. Part 1: Antifungal Activity of Selected Iranian and Canadian Plants. Pharm. Biol., 36: 180-188.
Yadava, T. P.; Friedt, D. W.; Gupta, S. K. (1998). Oil content and fatty acid composition of Taramira (E. sativa L.) Genotypes. J. Food Sci. Technol., 35: 557-558.
Osman, M.; Amber, K H.; Mahmoud, M. A. (2004). Response of broiler chicks performance to partial dietary inclusion of radish, rocket and parsley cakes. Egypt Poult. Sci., 24: 429-46.
El-Tohamy, M. M.; El-Kady, R. I. (2007). Partial replacement of soybean meal with some medicinal plant seed meals and their effect on the performance of rabbits. Int. J. Agric. And Biol., 9 (2): 215-219.
Gulfraz, M.; Sadiq, A.; Tariq, H.; Imran, M.; Qureshi, R.; Zeenat, A. (2011). Phytochemical analysis and antibacterial activity of E. sativa seed. Pak. J. Bot., 43 (2): 1351-1359.
Martinez-Sanchez, A.; Allende, A.; Bennett, R N.; Ferreres, F.; Gil, M. I. (2006). Microbial, nutritional and sensory quality of rocket leaves as affected by different sanitizers. Postharvest Biol Technol., 42: 86-97.
Kushad, M. M.; Brown, A. F.; Kurlich, A. C.; Juvik, J. A.; Klein, B. P.; Wallig, M. A.; Jeffery, E. H. (1984). Variation of glucosinolates in vegetable crops of Brassica oleracea. J. Agri. Food Chem., 47: 1548-1571.
Rosa, E. A. S.; Heaney, R. K.; Fenwick, G. R.; Portas, C. A. M. (1997). Glucosinolates in crop plants. Hortic. Rev. (Am. Soc. Hortic. Sci.), 19: 99-215.
Ettlinger, M. G.; Lundeen, A. J. (1956). The mustard oil of limnanthesdouglasii seed, m-methoxybenzylisothiocyanate. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 78 (9): 1952–1954.
Larsen, P. O. (1981). Glucosinolates. In The Biochemistry of Plants, 7, Secondary Plant Products; Conn E. E., Ed., Academic Press: New York, pp. 501-525.
Kjaer, A. (1961). Naturally occurring isothiocyanates and their parent glycosides. In: Kharasch, N. (Ed.), Organic Sulfur Compounds.
Pasini, F.; Verardo, V.; Caboni, M. F.; D’Antuono, L. F. (2012). Determination of glucosinolates and phenolic compounds in rocket salad by HPLC-DAD–MS: Evaluation of E. sativa Mill. And Diplotaxistenuifolia L. genetic resources. Food Chem., 133: 1025-1033.
Ettebong, E.; Nwafor, P. (2009). In vitro antimicrobial ctivities of extracts of Caepolobialutea root. Pak. J. Pharm. Sci., 22 (3): 335-338.
Okwu, D. E.; Josiah, C. (2006). Evaluation of the chemical composition of two Nigerian medicinal plants. Afr. J. Biotechnol., 5 (4): 357-361.
Aiyelaagbe, O. O.; Osamudiamen, P. M. (2009). Phytochemical screening for active compounds in Mangiferaindica leaves from Ibadan, Oyo State. Plant Sci. Res., 2 (1): 11-13.
Khoobchandani, M., Ojeswi, B. K.; Ganesh, N.; Srivastava, M. M.; Gabbanini, S.; Matera, R.; Iori, R.; Valgimigli, L. (2010). Antimicrobial properties and analytical profile of traditional E. sativa seed oil: Comparison with various aerial and root plant extracts. J. Food Chem., 120: 217-224.
Plumb, G. W.; Lambert, N.; Chabers, S. J.; Wanigatunga, S.; Heaney, R. K.; Plumb, J. A.; Aruoma, O. I.; Halliwell, B.; Miller, N. J.; Williamson, G. (1996). Are whole extracts and purified glucosinolates from cruciferous vegetables antioxidants?. Free Radic. Res., 25: 75-86.
Alam, M. S.; Kaur, G.; Jabbar, Z.; Javed, K.; Athar, M. (2007). E. sativa seeds possess antioxidant activity and exert a protective effect on mercuric chloride induced renal toxicity. Food Chem. Toxicol., 45: 910-920.
Bhandari, S. R.; Jo, J. S.; Lee, J. G. (2015). Comparison of Glucosinolate Profiles in Different Tissues of Nine Brassica Crops. Molecules, 20 (9): 15827-15841; doi: 10.3390/molecules200915827
Hanafi, E. M.; Hegazy, E. M.; Raid, R. M.; Amer, H. A. (2010). Bioprotective effect of Eruca sativa seed oil against hazard effect of aflatoxin B1 in male rabbits. Int. J. Acad. Res. 2 (2): 67-74.
Das, S.; Tyagi, A. K.; Singhal, K. K. (2001). Chemical composition including amino acid, fatty acid and glucosinolate profile of taramira (E. sativa) oilseed. J. Agri. Sci., 71: 613-615.
Higdon, J. V.; Delage, B.; Williams, D. E.; Dashwood, R. H. (2007). Cruciferous vegetables and human cancer risk: epidemiologic evidence and mechanistic basis. Pharmacol. Res. 55: 224-236.
Latte, K. P.; Appel, K. E.; Lampen, A. (2011). Health benefits and possible risks of broccoli- An overview. Food Chem. Toxicol. 49: 3287-3309.
Traka, M.; Mithen, R. (2009). Glucosinolates, isothiocyanates, and human health. Phytochem. Rev. 8, 269-282.
Flayyih, M. T. (2012). Characterization of enterotoxin produced by local isolate of Yersinia enterocolitica and study of the inhibitory effect of Eruca sativa on its activity. Iraqi J. Sci., 53 (2): 257-262.
Curran, J. P.; Al-Salihi, F. L. (1980). Neonatal staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome: Massive outbreak due to an unusual phage type. Pediatrics, 66: 285-290.
Ryan, K. J.; Ray, C. G. (2004). Sherries medical microbiology: An introduction to infectious diseases (4th Ed.), McGraw-Hill, New York.
Shoaib, A.; Saeed, G.; Ahmad, S. (2014). Antimicrobial activity and chemical analysis of some edible oils (Clove, Kalonji and Taramira). Afr. J. Biotechnol., 13 (46): 4347-4354.
El-Fadaly, H. A.; El-Kadi, S. M.; El-Moghazy, M. M.; Soliman, A. A.; El-Haysha, M. S. M. (2017a). Correlation Between Active Components of Rocket (Eruca sativa) as Cytotoxicity (Brine Shrimp Lethality Assay). American Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering. Vol. 3, No. 2, pp. 20-24.
El-Fadaly, H. A.; El-Kadi, S. M.; El-Moghazy, M. M.; Soliman, A. A. M.; El-Haysha, M. S. (2017b). Antioxidant activity studies on extracts of Eruca sativa seed meal and oil, detoxification, the role of antioxidants in the resistant microbes. IJSRM Human J., 6 (3): 31-51.
Open Science Scholarly Journals
Open Science is a peer-reviewed platform, the journals of which cover a wide range of academic disciplines and serve the world's research and scholarly communities. Upon acceptance, Open Science Journals will be immediately and permanently free for everyone to read and download.
Office Address:
228 Park Ave., S#45956, New York, NY 10003
Phone: +(001)(347)535 0661
Copyright © 2013-, Open Science Publishers - All Rights Reserved