Assesment of Larvicidal Activities of Essential Oil Extracted from Country Onion (Afrostyrax lepidophyllus) Seed on Anopheles Mosquito Larvae
Mosquitoes particularly anopheles are the main vectors for the malaria parasites that causes malaria fever diseases which is the highest killer of human beings in the tropics. There has been exploration of various methods over the centuries to control mosquito borne diseases. Larvicidal activities of essential oil extracted from country onion (Afrostyrax lepidophyllus) seed, on anopheles mosquito larvae has been determined in this study. Essential oils were extracted from Afrostyrax lepidophyllus seed by Hydrodistillation method, with a percentage yield of 4.12% and characterized using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Eighteen (18) compounds were identified to be Methanamine (1.07%), Dimethyl trisulfide (16.7%), Furan (0.79%), 1,2-Benzenediol (1.53), Disulfide (52.3%), 1,2,4 trithiolane (0.40%), 2,4-dimethyl-3-nitrobicyclo [3.2.1] (2.85%), 2-pyridinemethanamine (0.66%), Bis (2sulfhydrylethyl (16.7%), Benzenemethanol (0.28%), 2,2-dimethylpropanoic acid (0.50%),1,2 bis (trimethylsily) benzene (0.27%), Cyclotrisiloxane (0.28%), Silane (0.27%), Tetrasiloxane (0.68%), Methyltris (trimethylsiloxane) silane (1.00%), Silicic acid (2.15%), 1,4-phenylenebis[trimethyl (1.53%). The percentage amounts of the components was determined based on their relative abundance and their retention indices. There were significance differences (P< 0.05) in concentrations of Afrostyrax lepidophyllus essential oil activities against anopheles mosquito’s larvae. Results of the larvicidal activity showed that, 200ppm and 400ppm concentration of essential oil induced 100% larval mortality in 24hr. While At lower concentration of 50ppm, 100ppm and 150ppm, induced 45% and 95% and 99% larval mortality within 24hr respectively. This results of larvicidal activity of Essential oil from the Afrostyrax lepidophyllus seed shows that the oil is highly reactive against anopheles mosquito larvae indicating that it could be explored as a more potentially effective, economical and cost effective mosquito control agent for industrial and household usage.
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