Substance Abuse During Pregnancy and Repercussions in Pregnancy and in the Postpartum
The use of illicit drugs in pregnancy is a public health problem that implies multiple risks for its user. Specifically during pregnancy, this addiction causes risk to the fetus (malformation, prematurity, low birthweight, decreased head circumference, sudden death) as well as maternal risk (premature placental displacement, ischaemia, heart attack and death). In Europe, a study found that up to 7.9% of pregnant women had been exposed to these types of substances. There is little proven evidence in study describing the exposure to illicit prenatal drugs in Brazil and South America. Furthermore, omission of information during anamnesis in prenatal consultations has been making it more difficult to know the prevailing drugs used by this group of patients. Although there is no precise epidemiological data, it is known that the use of cocaine in the form of crack has been increasing due to its low cost and intense effect, being found in less favored classes and with a significant increase in female users. Further studies are necessary in order to provide new ways of conducting treatment. In this retrospective article, a sample of the population with an average age of around 25 years was studied, with a prevalence of 3 prenatal consultations. There was a 34% association with sexually transmitted infections (STIs) - Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and syphilis (VDRL). Around 83.7% of their partners were in use of some type of illicit substance. Over half the patients had failed to complete elementary school, with only around 10% having finished high school. No significant negative effect was found on 1st and 5th minute Apgar scores. Malformations were present in 5.4% of the infants.
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