Welcome to Open Science
Contact Us
Home Books Journals Submission Open Science Join Us News
Vitamin D and Calcium Status in Pregnant Women in Western-Libya
Current Issue
Volume 3, 2018
Issue 6 (November)
Pages: 122-128   |   Vol. 3, No. 6, November 2018   |   Follow on         
Paper in PDF Downloads: 20   Since Jan. 18, 2019 Views: 839   Since Jan. 18, 2019
Ashraf Mohamed Albakoush, Department of Medical Laboratory, Faculty of Medical Technology, Sabratha University, Surman, Libya.
Azab Elsayed Azab, Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Sabratha University, Sabratha, Libya.
Vitamin D deficiency is common during pregnancy especially among high-risk groups, including vegetarians, women with limited sun exposure. Severe maternal vitamin D deficiency has been associated with biochemical evidence of disordered skeletal homeostasis. The present study aims to evaluate the status of vitamin D and calcium ions in pregnant women in Western-Libya. A total of 79 pregnant women were included in the present study. 21, 34, and 24 pregnant women were in the 1 st trimester, the 2nd trimester, and the 3rd trimester of pregnancy, respectively. A complete data record was obtained including name, age, duration of pregnancy, weight, height, healthy diet, and family history of chronic diseases using standardized questionnaire. Blood samples were obtained from all subjects for measurement of serum vitamin D and calcium. Venous blood was drawn in plain blood tube containing clot activator and immediately centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 5 minutes to obtain serum and immediately analyzed. A significant decrease in vitamin D level was recorded in pregnant women as compared with a non pregnant woman. The highest level of serum calcium was found in the 2nd trimester and the highest level of vitamin D was found in the 3rd trimester. 84.8% of study group had a vitamin D level less than 20ng/ml and 46.8% had a calcium level less than 8.4mg/dl. The levels of vitamin D were less than 20ng/ml in the 1st, 2nd, and the 3rd trimesters of pregnancy as 95.2%, 91.2%, and 66.7%, respectively. And calcium levels were less than 8.4 mg/dl in the 1st, 2nd, and the 3rd trimesters of pregnancy as 61.9%, 35.3%, and 50%, respectively. Also, the study revealed a significant correlation between vitamin D and serum calcium levels, but no correlation between vitamin D and BMI or between serum calcium and BMI were observed in pregnant women. Despite the large amount of sunshine in Libya, these results show that pregnant women in our region are at high risk for vitamin D deficiency. So, we need to focus our emphasis on maternal nutrition, especially adequate vitamin D and calcium intake, which may pave way in the long run for prevention of future bone health related conditions like osteoporosis.
Calcium Status, Vitamin D Status, Pregnant Women, Western Libya
Pawley N, and Bishop NJ. Prenatal and infant predictors of bone health: the influence of vitamin D. Amer J Clin Nutr., 2004; 80:1748S–1751S.
Gale CR, Robinson SM, Harvey NC, Javaid MK, Jiang B, Martyn CN, et al. Maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy and child outcomes. Princess Anne Hospital Study Group. Eur J Clin Nutr., 2008; 62: 68–77.
Whiteman, Honor. Vitamin D deficiency in pregnancy 'increases preeclampsia risk. Medical News Today. MediLexicon, Intl., 28 Jan. 2014. https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/271768.php.
Food and nutrition board, standing committee on the scientific evaluation of dietary reference intakes: Dietary reference intakes for vitamin D and calcium. Washington, National Academy Press, 2010.
Misra M, Pacaud D, Petryk A, Collett-Solberg F, and Kappy M. Drug and Therapeutics Committee of the Lawson Wilkins Pediatric Endocrine Society: Vitamin D deficiency in children and its management: review of current knowledge and recommendations. Pediatrics. 2008; 122: 398–417.
Judkins A, Eagleton C: Vitamin D deficiency in pregnant New Zealand women. NZ Med J. 2006; 119:U2144.
Thandrayen K, Pettifor JM: Maternal vitamin D status: implications for the development of infantile nutritional rickets. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Amer., 2010; 39: 303–320.
Javaid MK, Crozier SR, Harvey NC, Gale CR,Dennison EM, Boucher BJ, Arden NK, Godfrey KM, Cooper C; Princess Anne Hospital Study Group: Maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy and childhood bone mass at age 9 years: a longitudinal study. Lancet. 2006; 367: 36-43.
Dror DK: Vitamin D status during pregnancy: Maternal, fetal, postnatal outcomes. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol 2011; 23: 422–426.
Miyake Y, Sasaki S, Tanaka K, Hirota Y: Dairy food, calcium and vitamin D intake in pregnancy and wheeze and eczema in infants. Eur Respir J 2010; 35: 1228–1234.
Zipitis CS, Akobeng AK: Vitamin D supplementation in early childhood and risk of type1 diabetes: a systematic review and metaanalysis. Arch Dis Child 2008; 93: 512–517.
Bassir M, Laborie S, Lapillonne A, Claris O,Chappuis MC, Salle BL: Vitamin D deficiency in Iranian mothers and their neonates: a pilot study. Acta Paediatr 2001; 90: 577–579.
Ergur AT, Merih Berberoglu M, Atasay B,Isıklar Z, Bilir P, Arsan S, Sِylemez F, OcalG: Vitamin D deficiency in Turkish mothers and their neonates and in women of reproductive age. J Clin Res Ped Endo 2009; 1: 266–269.
Alag F, Shihadeh Y, Boztepe H, Tanakol R,Yarman S, Azizlerli H, Sandalci O: Sunlight exposure and vitamin D deficiency in Turkish women. J Endocrinol Invest 2000; 23:173–177.
Andıran N, Yordam N A. The risk factors for vitamin D deficiency in breastfed newborns and their mothers. Nutrition. 2002; 18: 47–50.
Pehlivan İ, Hatun Ş, Aydoğan M, Babaoğlu K, Gkalp AS: Maternal vitamin D deficiency and vitamin D supplementation in healthy infants. Turk J Pediatr 2003; 45: 315–320.
Hollis BW, Wagner CL. Assessment of dietary vitamin D requirements during pregnancy and lactation. Am J Clin Nutr 2004; 79:717–726.
Lee JM, Smith JR, Philipp BL, Chen TC, Mathieu J, Holick MF. Vitamin D deficiency in a healthy group of mothers and newborn infants. Clin Pediatr (Phila) 2007; 46: 42–44.
Bodnar LM, Simhan HN, Powers RW, Frank MP, Cooperstein E, Roberts JM. High prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in black and white pregnant women residing in the northern United States and their neonates. J Nutr 2007; 137:447–452.
Holick MF. Vitamin D deficiency. N Engl J Med 2007; 357: 266–281.
Bouillon R, Norman AW, Lips P. Vitamin D deficiency. N Engl J Med 2007; 357:1980–1982.
Vitamin D supplementation: Recommendations for Canadian mothers and infants. Paediatr Child Health 2007; 12:583–598.
National Institutes of Health, Office of Dietary Supplements. Vitamin D. Available at: http://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/list-all/VitaminD. Retrieved December 16, 2010.
Hollis BW, Wagner CL. Normal serum vitamin D levels. N Engl J Med 2005; 352: 515–516.
Nageshu S, Krishna K, Krishna L, Bhat BS, Suma HR, and Reddy S. A study of prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among pregnant women and its impact on feto maternal outcome. Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol., 2016; 4 (4): 1174-1180.
Brannon PM, Picciano MF. Vitamin D in pregnancy and lactation in humans. Annu Rev Nutr. 2011; 31: 89–115.
Marwaha RK, Tandon N, Chopra S, Agarwal N, Garg MK, Sharma B, Kanwar RS, Bhadra K, Singh S, Mani K, Puri S. Vitamin D status in pregnant Indian women across trimesters and different seasons and its correlation with neonatal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. Br J Nutr. 2011; 106(9):1383–1389.
Hamilton SA, et al. Profound vitamin D deficiency in a diverse group of women during pregnancy living in a sun-rich environment at latitude 32 degrees N. Int J Endocrinol. 2010; 2010: 917428.
Perampalam S, et al. Vitamin D status and its predictive factors in pregnancy in 2 Australian populations. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 2011; 51 (4):353–359.
Karim SA, Nusrat U, Aziz S. Vitamin D deficiency in pregnant women and their newborns as seen at a tertiary-care center in Karachi, Pakistan. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2011; 112 (1): 59–62.
Shibata M, et al. High prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in pregnant Japanese women with threatened premature delivery. J Bone Miner Metab. 2011; 29 (5):615–620.
Kovacs CS, El-Hajj Fuleihan G. Calcium and bone disorders during pregnancy and lactation. Endocrinol Metab Clin N Am. 2006; 35: 21–51.
Ginde AA, Sullivan AF, Mansbach JM, Camargo Jr CA. Vitamin D insufficiency in pregnant and nonpregnant women of childbearing age in the United States. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2010; 202 (5):436, e1–8.
Kovacs CS, Kronenberg HM. Maternal-fetal calcium and bone metabolism during pregnancy, puerperium, and lactation. Endocr Rev. 1997; 18: 832–872.
Fleischman AR, Rosen JF, Cole J, Smith CM, DeLuca HF. Maternal and fetal serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels at term. J Pediatr. 1980; 97: 640–642.
Kalkwarf HJ, Specker BL. Bone mineral changes during pregnancy and lactation. Endocrine. 2002; 17: 49–53.
Open Science Scholarly Journals
Open Science is a peer-reviewed platform, the journals of which cover a wide range of academic disciplines and serve the world's research and scholarly communities. Upon acceptance, Open Science Journals will be immediately and permanently free for everyone to read and download.
Office Address:
228 Park Ave., S#45956, New York, NY 10003
Phone: +(001)(347)535 0661
Copyright © 2013-, Open Science Publishers - All Rights Reserved