The Effect of Tramadol Administration on the Levels of Some Trace Elements in Male Rabbits
Tramadol sold under brand name Ultram among others, is an opiod pain medication used to treat the moderate to severe pain. It was hypothesized that acute and chronic administration of Tramadol may impair trace elements homeostasis in the body. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of some trace elements in Rabbits administered with different concentrations of Tramadol on acute and chronic bases. Twenty four rabbits were used for the study; divided into 8 groups of 3 rabbits each based on similarities in weight and varying doses of tramadol. Groups A, B and C were given 10, 15 and 20mg/kg body weight Tramadol intramuscularly for 15days while groups D and E were given 10 and 20mg/kg body weight Tramadol intravenously for 30days. Groups F and G were given 10 and 20mg/kg body weight for 15 days, Tramadol withdrawn and observed for 15days while group H was given only water and feeds (controls). Blood sample was collected from the vein lining ear of the rabbits at the end of drug administration. The plasma was digested using Perchloric acid and nitric acid in 1:3 ratio and copper, zinc and iron were analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The result obtained showed a significantly higher level of copper in rabbits in groups A to G. There mean levels of zinc and iron decreased with increasing concentrations of administered Tramadol in experimental animals. The result also showed no significant difference in copper in rabbits administered with 10mg of tramadol for 15 days and allowed to recover for 15 days (group F) compared with rabbits administered with 20mg of tramadol and allowed to recover for 15 days (group G). The blood levels of copper were higher while zinc and iron were lower in rabbits treated with Tramadol irrespective of concentration but levels of measured micronutrients did not return to the concentrations observed in the controls after 15days withdrawal of Tramadol administration. Acute and chronic administration of Tramadol might adversely affect measured micronutrients homeostasis.
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