A Cross Sectional Study to Ascertain the Ability of the FINDRISC Diabetes Risk Assessment Tool to Detect Pre-Diabetes
Prediabetes is characterized by blood glucose levels that are higher than normal but not high enough to be classed as diabetes, and known to be a high risk state. According to the Ministry of Health, pre-diabetic people are 2-3 times more likely to develop diabetes, which is known to be one of the top 10 deadliest diseases in Malaysia. A new screening tool to screen for diabetes was developed in the form of a questionnaire which provided a cheaper and convenient tool as compared to using laboratory based diagnostic tests, that is the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC). It is the most valid tool preferred for resource-limited settings by International Diabetes Federation (IDF). However, it was derived and validated for the specific Caucasian population and not the Malaysian population. A cross sectional study was performed among medical undergraduates of Melaka Manipal Medical College (MMMC), Malaysia, with a sample size of 180 participants selected by simple random sampling. Any healthy participant between the age of 18-30, not diagnosed with diabetes mellitus, and students from MMMC were included however those that did not give informed consent, did not complete the questionnaire, and participants that fasted prior to the study were excluded. Data was collected by self-administered questionnaires, filled prior to finger prick for blood glucose. Following multivariate analysis, a positive association between the FINDRISC Score and Waist Circumference, BMI, Physical Activity of less than 30 minutes, first degree relatives with diabetes and previous high glucose. An association was also found between the FINDRISC Score and Waist circumference as well as blood glucose. The sensitivity was 46.67% and specificity 64.55%, with Positive Predictive Value 59.35% and Negative predictive value 74.74%, hence the use of the FINDRISC Diabetes Risk Assessment Score is a moderate to poor screening tool for pre-diabetics, this is attributable to its’ poor sensitivity and high specificity, and a negative predictive value higher than positive predictive value.
FINDRISC, Diabetes, Pre-diabetes, Malaysia
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