Welcome to Open Science
Contact Us
Home Books Journals Submission Open Science Join Us News
Mole Ratio of Eco–Friendly Epoxidation of Citrullus Lanatus (Watermelon) Seeds Oil
Current Issue
Volume 5, 2018
Issue 1 (February)
Pages: 1-10   |   Vol. 5, No. 1, February 2018   |   Follow on         
Paper in PDF Downloads: 70   Since Jan. 25, 2018 Views: 1066   Since Jan. 25, 2018
Authors
[1]
Muhammad Rizwan, Department of Chemistry, University of Engineering & Technology, Lahore, Pakistan.
[2]
Sobia Naseem, Department of Chemistry, University of Engineering & Technology, Lahore, Pakistan.
Abstract
The mole ratio of epoxidation of Watermelon seed oil (citrulus lanatus) was studied in situ formed by the reaction of hydrogen peroxide and glacial acetic acid, acting as precursor of peroxy-acetic acid (behave as active oxygen carrier), in the presence of catalyst in inert solvent (maintain the stability of epoxidised product). Choice of catalyst (Amberlite IR-120) got priority as eco-friendly and more effective n terms of oxirane conversion instead of mineral acids i.e. H2SO4 and HNO3. The epoxidation of Watermelon seed (WMSO) oil was proceeded in two main reaction phases via Homogenous & Heterogeneous phase. In heterogeneous phase, reaction starts with the formation of initiator like peroxy-carboxylic acid by excitingly combination of hydrogen peroxide with carboxylic acids (liquid phase) using a catalyst (solid phase). This leads to next step, i.e. combination of peroxy-carboxylic acid (liquid phase) with unsaturated fatty acid (liquid phase) giving homogenous phase reaction. The relative epoxy yield was achieved at 333K (60°C) after 6 hrs when Amberlite IR-120 was taken as 3% of total weight of acetic acid and 30% aqueous H2O2 per mole of double bond in oil.
Keywords
In Situ Epoxidation, Watermelon Seed Oil (WMSO), Acidic ion Exchange Resin, Peroxy-Acetic Acid (PAA), Kinetics
Reference
[1]
Koocheki, S. M. A. Razavi, E. Milani, T. M. Moghadam, M. Abedini, S. Alamatiyan, and S. Izadkhah, Department of Food Science and Technology, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad (FUM), P. O. Box. 91775-1163, Mashhad, Iran, 2007.
[2]
BaharakSajjadi Abdul Aziz, Abdul Raman, Hamid reza Arandiyan, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Volume 63, September 2016, Pages 62-92, october-2016.
[3]
Duduyemi, Oladejo, Adebanjo S. A, Oluoti Kehinde, August 2013, International Journal of Science & Technology research vol. 2, issue 8.
[4]
Petrovic Z. S., Zlatanic A., Lava C. C. Epoxidation of soya bean oil in toluene with peroxoacetic acid and peroxoformic acids-kinetics and side reactions. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology 104 (5): 293-299.5. Okieimen F. E., Bakare O. J. & Okieimen C. O. (2002).
[5]
Zengshe Liu, Jie Chen, Gerhard Knothe, Xiaoan Nie, and Jianchun Jiang, ACS Sustainable Chem. Eng., 2016, 4 (3), pp 901–906.
[6]
J. Braz. Chem. Soc. vol. 22 no. 12 São Paulo Dec. 2011.
[7]
Luis Alberto Rios aus Medellín, Colombia, Tag der mündlichen Prüfung: 11. April 2003, M.Sc-Chemisch Ingenieur.
[8]
Padmasiri K. Gamage, Micheal O’Brien and Laleen Karunanayake Epoxidation of some vegetable oils and their hydrolysed products London Metropolitan University, Holloway Road, London N7 8DB, UK. Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Applied Science, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Gangodawila, Nugego.
[9]
Cooney, T. I., Cardona, F., & Tran-Cong, T. (eddBE2011 Proceedings 106 Energy, Environment and Sustainability).
[10]
Tayde Saurabh., Patnaik M. Bhagt S. L., Renge V. C. epoxidation of vegetable oil review. IJAET/VOL.II/ISSUE IV/October –December 2011//491-501.
[11]
Wei Liu, Jingnan Chen, Ruili Liu, Yanlan Bi, Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society, November 2016, Volume 93, Issue 11, pp 1479–1486.
[12]
Sinadinovic-Fiser, S., Jankovic, M., & Petrovic, Z. S. (2001). Kinetics of in situ epoxidation of soybean oil in bulk catalyzed by ion exchange resin. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society, 78 (7), 725-731.
[13]
Goud, V. V., Pradhan, N. C., & Patwardhan, A. V. (2006). Epoxidation of karanja (Pongamia glabra) oil by Hydrogenperoxide. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society, 83 (7), 635-640.
[14]
Ketaren S (2005). Edible oils and fats, Ul-Press, Jakarta. P. 145.
[15]
Jun L. Zheng, Johan Wärnå, Tapio Salmi, Fabrice Burel, Bechara Taouk, Sébastien Leveneur, 5 Oct 2015.
[16]
Angelini et al., 1997; Ncube et al., 1998; Warwel et al., 2004.
Open Science Scholarly Journals
Open Science is a peer-reviewed platform, the journals of which cover a wide range of academic disciplines and serve the world's research and scholarly communities. Upon acceptance, Open Science Journals will be immediately and permanently free for everyone to read and download.
CONTACT US
Office Address:
228 Park Ave., S#45956, New York, NY 10003
Phone: +(001)(347)535 0661
E-mail:
LET'S GET IN TOUCH
Name
E-mail
Subject
Message
SEND MASSAGE
Copyright © 2013-, Open Science Publishers - All Rights Reserved