Welcome to Open Science
Contact Us
Home Books Journals Submission Open Science Join Us News
Psychosocial Adaptation as a Mediator of Associations Between Attachment to Parents and Social Acceptance During Late Childhood and Pre-adolescence
Current Issue
Volume 2, 2015
Issue 5 (September)
Pages: 24-31   |   Vol. 2, No. 5, September 2015   |   Follow on         
Paper in PDF Downloads: 68   Since Oct. 23, 2015 Views: 1912   Since Oct. 23, 2015
Styliani Gidari, Department of Preschool Education, University of Thessaly, Volos, Greece.
Christina J. Roussi – Vergou, Department of Preschool Education, University of Thessaly, Volos, Greece.
Maria – Rafaela Tziouvara, Department of Education, University of Macedonia, Thessaloniki, Greece.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between perceptions of children in late childhood and pre-adolescent concerning the attachment security to their parents and social acceptance by the peers, by considering the psychosocial adjustment as possible mediator of this relationship. The survey involved 279 children, in fifth and sixth grade (11-12 years) from three elementary schools in Katerini, Central Macedonia, Greece. Our findings showed that children with a secure attachment to parents have fewer behavioral and emotional problems and higher levels of positive social behavior than children with insecure attachment. Furthermore, we found that a secure attachment relationship with parents can enhance children's positive acceptance by the group of their peers. Gender appeared to exert a significant effect on perceived levels of alienation from parents, on emotional disturbances and positive social behavior, while the age played the same role, only with positive social behavior. Finally, our results showed that insecure attachment is not directly linked to social rejection and isolation, but indirectly through the mediating role of the behavioural and emotional difficulties, which reflect an at risk psychosocial adaptation. The mediating role of psychosocial adaptation was supported only in the case of the problematic psychosocial adaptation, as the latter is more directly linked to anxious attachment.
Attachment, Strengths and Difficulties, Sociometric Status, Children’s Emotional Disorders
Ainsworth, M. D. (1989). Attachments beyond infancy. American Psychologist, 44, 709-716.
Ainsworth, M. D., Blehar, M. C., Waters, E., & Wall, S. (1978). Patterns of attachment: A psychological study of the Strange Situation. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Angold, A., Costello, J., & Erkanli, A. (1999). Comorbidity. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 40, 7-87.
Antoniadou, E., & Bibou – Nakou, I. (2000). Understanding rejecting relationships from the perspective of school-age: reasoning, explanations and connections to loneliness. Pedagogiacal Review, (Pedagogiki Epitheorisi), 30, 193-213. (In Greek).
Armsden, G. C., & Greenberg, M. T. (1987). The inventory of parent and peer attachment: Individual differences and their relationship to psychological well-being in adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 16, 427-454.
Avagianou, P. A., & Zafiropoulou, M. (2008). Parental bonding and depression: Personality as a mediating factor. International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health, 20(3), 261-269.
Bagwell, C. L., Newcomb, A. F., & Bukowski, W. M. (1998). Preadolescent friendship and peer rejection as predictors of adult adjustment. Child Development, 69, 140-153.
Baltes, M. M. & Silverberg, S. (1994). The dynamics between dependency and autonomy: illustrations across the life span. In Life-Span Development and Behaviour, Vol. 12, Featherman, D. L., Lerner, R. M. and Perlmutter, M. (Eds). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, pp. 41-90.
Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator-mediator distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual,strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 1173–1182.
Bibou – Nakou, I., Kioseoglou, G., Stogiannidou, A. (2001). Strengths and difficulties of school-age children in family and school. Psychology (Psychologia), 8(4), 506-525. (in Greek)
Boivin, M., & Hymel, S. (1997). Peer experiences and social self-perceptions: A sequential model. Developmental Psychology, 33, 135-145.
Bowlby, J. (1982). Attachment and loss. Vol. 1: Attachment (2nd ed.). New York: Basic Books.
Bretherton, I. (1985). Attachment theory: Retrospect and prospect. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 50, 3-35.
Bretherton, I., & Munholland, K. (1999). Internal working models in attachmentrelationships: a construct revisited. In: J. Cassidy, and P. Shaver (Εds.), Handbook of Attachment: Theory, Research and Clinical Applications (pp. 89-111). New York: The Guilford Press.
Buhrmester, D. (1990). Intimacy of friendship, interpersonal competence, and adjustment during preadolescence and adolescence. Child Development, 61, 1101-1111.
Burgess, K. B., Marshall, P., Rubin, K. H., & Fox, N. A. (2003). Infant attachment and temperament as predictors of subsequent behavior problems and psychophysiological functioning. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Discipline, 44, 1-13.
Carlson, E.A., Sroufe, L. A., & Egeland, B. (2004). The construction of experience: A longitudinal study of representation and behavior. Child Development, 75, 66–83.
Carslon, E. A. (1998). A prospective longitudinal study of disorganised/disoriented attachment. Child Development, 69, 1107-1128.
Cassidy, J. (1994). Emotional regulation: Influences of attachment relationships. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 59(2-3), 228-249.
Chen, B. B. (2011). Interpersonal strategy, attachment security and social status among Chinese children in the initial period of secondary school. School Psychology International, 32(6), 592–599.
Chotai, J., Jonasson, M., Hägglöf, B., & Adolfsson, R. ( 2005). Adolescent attachment styles and their relation to the temperament and character traits of personality in a general population. European Psychiatry, 20, 251-259.
Cohn, D. A., Patterson, C. J., & Christopoulos, C. ( 1991 ). The family and children's peer relations. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 8, 315-346.
Coie, J. D., & Dodge, K. A. (1988). Multiple sources of data on social behavior and social status in the school: a cross-age comparison. Child Development, 59(3), 815-829.
Coie, J. D., Dodge, K. A., & Coppotelli, H. (1982). Dimensions and types of social status: A cross-age perspective. Developmental Psychology, 18, 557-571.
Coie, J. D., Dodge, K. A., & Kupersmidt, J. (1990). Peer group behaviour and social status. In S.R. Asher and J.D. Coie (Eds.), Peer rejection in childhood (pp. 17–59). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Contreras, J. M., Kerns, K. A., Weimer, B. L., Gentzler, A. L., & Tomich, P. L. (2000). Emotion regulation as a mediator of associations between mother–child attachment and peer relationships in middle childhood. Journal of Family Psychology, 14, 111–124.
Cooper, M. L., Shaver, P. R. & Collins, N.L. (1998). Attachment styles, emotion regulation, and adjustment in adolescence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74(5), 1380-1397.
DeKlyen, M., Speltz, M. L., & Greenberg, M. T. (1998). Fathering and early onset conduct problems. Positive and negative parenting, father–son attachment, and the marital context. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 1, 3-21.
Dodge, K. A., & Newman, J. P. (1981). Biased decision-making processes in aggressive boys. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 90, 375-379.
Eisenberg, N., Guthrie, I. K., Cumberland, A., Murphy, B. C., Shepard, S. A., Zhou, Q., & Carlo, G. (2002). Prosocial development in early adulthood: A longitudinal study. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82, 993-1006.
Erdley, C. A. D., Nangle, W., Newman, J. E., & Carpenter, E. M. (2001). Children’s friendship experiences and psychological adjustment: Theory and research. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 91, 5-24.
Fonagy, P., Steele, M., Steele, H., Moran, G., & Higgit, A. (1996). Ghosts in the nursery: An empirical study of the repercussions of parents' mental representations on the security of attachment. Psychiatrie De I' enfant, 39(1), 63-83.
Goodman, R. (1997). The strengths and difficulties questionnaire: a research note. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 38, 581-586.
Goodman, R. (2001). Psychometric properties of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 40, 1337-1345.
Granot, D., & Mayseless, O. (2001). Attachment security and adjustment to school in middle childhood. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 25, 530-541.
Greenberg, M. T (1999). Attachment and Psychopathology in Childhood. In: Cassidy J, Shaver P, (Εd.), Handbook of Attachment: Theory, Research and Clinical Applications (pp. 469-496). New York:The Guilford Press.
Greener, S. (2000). Peer assessment of children’s prosocial behaviour. Journal of Moral Education, 29(1), 47-60.
Gullone, E., & Robinson, K. (2005). The inventory of parent and peer attachment-Revised (IPPA-R) for children: A psychometric investigation. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 12, 67-79.
Harter, S. (1990). Developmental differences in the nature of self-representations: Implications for the understanding, assessment and treatment of maladaptive behavior. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 14, 113-142.
Hartup, W. W. (1993). Adolescents and their friends. New Directions for Child Development, 60, 3-22.
Hay, D. F. (1994). Prosocial development. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 35, 29-71.
Jiang, X., & Cillessen, A. (2005). Stability of continuous measures of sociometric status: A meta-analysis. Developmental Review, 25, 1-25.
Kerns, K. A., Klepac, L., & Cole, A. (1996). Peer relationships and preadolescents’ perceptions of security in the child-mother relationship. Developmental Psychology, 32, 457-466.
Keskin, G., & Çam, O. (2010). Adolescents’ strengths and difficulties: approach to attachment styles. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 17, 433-441.
Kupersmidt, J. B, & Coie, J. D. (1990). Preadolescent peer status, aggression, and school adjustment as predictors of externalizing problems in adolescence. Child Development, 61, 1350-1362.
Laird, R. D., Jordan, K. Y., Dodge, K. A., Pettit, G. S., & Bates, J. E. (2001). Peer rejection in childhood, involvement with antisocial peers in early adolescence, and the development of externalizing behavior problems. Developmentand Psychopathology, 13, 337-354.
Maassen, G. H., Van der Linden, J. L., & Akkermans, W. (1997). Nominations, Ratings, and the Dimensions of Sociometric Status. International JournaI of Behavioral Development, 21, 179-199.
Mikulincer, M., & Shaver, P. R (2007). Attachment in Adulthood. Structure, Dynamics, and Changes. NewYork: The GuilfordPress.
Newcomb, A. F., Bukowski, W. M., & Pattee, L.(1993). Children’s peer relations: A meta- analytic review of popular, rejected, neglected, controversial, and average sociometric status. Psychological Bulletin, 113(1), 99-128.
Page, R. M., Frey, J., Talbert, R., & Falk, C. (1992). Children's feelings of loneliness and social dissatisfaction: Relationship to measures of physical fitness and activity. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 11, 211-219.
Parker, J. G., & Asher, S. R. (1987). Peer acceptance and later personal adjustment: Are low-accepted children "at risk"? Psychological Bulletin,102, 357-389.
Pedersen, S., Vitaro, F., Barker, E. D., & Borge, A. I. H. (2007). The timing of middle-childhood peer rejection and friendship: Linking early behavior to early-adolescent adjustment. Child Development, 78(4), 1037-1051.
Putallaz, M., & Wasserman, A. (1989). Children's naturalistic entry behavior and sociometric status: A developmental perspective. Developmental Psychology, 25, 297-305.
Rosentein, D. S., & Horowitz, H. A. (1996). Adolescent attachment and psychopathology. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64(2), 244-253.
Rubin, K. H., Dwyer, K. M., Booth-LaForce, C., Kim, A. H., Burgess, K. B., & Rose-Krasnor, L.(2004). Attachment, friendship, and psychosocial functioning in early adolescence. Journal of Early Adolescence, 24(4), 326-356.
Schneider, B., Tardif, C., & Atkinson, L. (2001). Child-parent attachment and children's peer relations: A quantitative review. Developmental Psychology, 37,(1), 86-100.
Speltz, M. L., DeKlyen, M., & Greenberg, M. T. (1999). Attaachment in boys with early onset conduct problems. Development and Psychopathology, 11, 269-285.
Spivak, H., & Prothrow-Stith, D. (2001). The need for address bullying: An important component of violence prevention. Journal of the American Medical Association, 285, 2131-2132.
Thompson, R. A. (1994). Emotion regulation: A theme in search of definition. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 59(2-3), 25-52.
Tsiantis, J. (1991). Dynamic interactions and procedures in adolescent – family realatiionships. Psychiatric (Psychiatriky), 2, 111-117. (In Greek)
Yagmurlu, B. & Sanson, A. (2009). The role of child temperament, parenting and culture in the development of prosocial behaviors. Australian Journal of Psychology, 61(2), 77-88.
Youniss, J., & Haynie, D. L. (1992). Friendship in adolescence. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 13(1), 59-66.
Verschueren, K., & Marcoen, A. (2002). Perceptions of self and relationship with parents in aggressive and nonaggressive rejected children. Journal of School Psychology, 40(6), 501-522.
Warren, S. L., Huston, L., Egeland, B., & Sroufe, L. A. (1997). Child and adolescent anxiety disorders and early attachment. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 637-644.
Weimer, B. L., Kerns, K. A., & Oldenburgb, C. M. (2004). Adolescents interactions with a best friend: Associations with attachment style. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 88, 102-120.
Open Science Scholarly Journals
Open Science is a peer-reviewed platform, the journals of which cover a wide range of academic disciplines and serve the world's research and scholarly communities. Upon acceptance, Open Science Journals will be immediately and permanently free for everyone to read and download.
Office Address:
228 Park Ave., S#45956, New York, NY 10003
Phone: +(001)(347)535 0661
Copyright © 2013-, Open Science Publishers - All Rights Reserved