Welcome to Open Science
Contact Us
Home Books Journals Submission Open Science Join Us News
Effect of Volume Fraction on the Mechanical Properties of Periwinkle Shell Reinforced Polyester Composite (PRPC)
Current Issue
Volume 2, 2015
Issue 1 (January)
Pages: 1-15   |   Vol. 2, No. 1, January 2015   |   Follow on         
Paper in PDF Downloads: 46   Since Aug. 28, 2015 Views: 1996   Since Aug. 28, 2015
Authors
[1]
Onyechi P. C., Department of Industrial and Production Engineering, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria.
[2]
Asiegbu K. O., Department of Industrial and Production Engineering, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria.
[3]
Igwegbe C. A., Department of Chemical Engineering, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria.
[4]
Nwosu M. C., Department of Industrial and Production Engineering, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria.
Abstract
The effects of volume fraction of periwinkle shells (PWS) on the mechanical properties of particulate reinforced polyester composite (PRPC) was investigated. Five replicated samples of each volume fraction of 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50%. 100 samples were produced and 25 of these samples were subjected to each mechanical test which include; tensile, flexural, hardness, and impact test. The average test results were used for graphical analysis with Minitab 15 software (developed in 2007). The maximum tensile strength of 24.3MPa was obtained from the composite made of 400μm particle size at 30% volume content. The maximum flexural strength of 47.4MPa was also obtained from the composite made of 400μm particle size at 30% volume content. Additionally, the composite made of 400μm particle size at 50% volume content gave the maximum hardness number (BHN) of 249. The composite made up of 1760μm particle size at 50% volume content yielded the maximum impact strength of 23.2Jm-2. It is concluded that the tensile and flexural strength rises highest at 30% content where it then decreases sharply, but in hardness and impact test, increase in volume fraction increases the BHN and impact strength.
Keywords
Composite, Flexural, Hardness, Impact Test, Periwinkle Shells, Strength, Tensile, Volume Fraction
Reference
[1]
Satyanarayana, K. G., Ramos, L. P. and Wypych, F. (2005) Development of new materials based on agro and industrial wastes towards ecofriendly society. 583-624.
[2]
Raju, G. U., Kumarappa, S. and Gaitonde, V. N. (2012) Mechanical and physical characterization of agricultural waste reinforced polymer composites. Journal for Material Environment and Science 3 (5) 907-916
[3]
Imoisili, P. E., Ukoba, K.O, Ibegbulam, C. M., Adgidzi, D. and Olusunle, S.O. (2012) Effect of Filler Volume Fraction on the Tensile Properties of Cocoa-Pod Epoxy Resin Composite. International Journal of Science and Technology 2(7).
[4]
Wretfors, C. and Svennerstedt, B. (2006) Biofibre Technology used in military applications An overview. Journal for Biofibre Technology Rapport 142, 1 - 40.
[5]
Ghosh, T. N., Chakrabarti T., and Tripathi, G. (2000) Biotechnology in energy management. New Delhi: APH Publishing Corporation.
[6]
Mohanty, A. K., Misra, M. and Hinrichsen, G. (2000) Biofibers, Biodegradable Polymers and Biocomposites: An Overview. Macromolecular Materials and Engineering 276/277, 1-24.
[7]
Jiken, L., Malhmmar, G. and Selden, R. (1991) The effect of mineral fillers on impact and tensile properties of polypropylene. Polymer Testing 10, 329-344.
[8]
Ishak, M. R., Leman, Z., S. M. Sapuan, S. M., Edeero-zey, A. M. M. and Othman, I. S. (2010) Mechanical Properties of Kenaf bast and Core Fibre Reinforced Unsaturated Polyester Composites. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering 11(1), 1-6.
[9]
Kandachar, P. and Brouwer, R. (2002) Applications of Bio-composites in Industrial Production. Materials Resources Society Symposium Proceedings 702, 101 - 112.
[10]
Zaini, R. E., Rowell, S. M. and Sanadi, A. R. (1995) Recent developments in annual growth lignocellulosic as reinforcing fillers in thermoplastics. Proceeding of 2nd Biomass Conference of the Americas: Energy, Environment, Agriculture and Industry 1171-1180.
[11]
Ofem, M. I., Umar, M., and Ovat, F. A. (2012) Mechanical Properties of Rice Husk Filled Cashew Nut Shell Liquid Resin Composites. Journal of Materials Science Research 1( 4), 89.
[12]
Egwaikhide, P.A., Akporhonor, E.E. and Okiemen, F.E. (2007) An Investigation on the Potential of Palm Karnel Husk as Fillers in Rubber Reinforcement. Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research 2 (1), 28-32,
[13]
Olutoge, F. A., Okeyinka, O. M., and Olaniyan, O. S., (2012) Assessment of the suitability of periwinkle shell ash (psa) as partial replacement for ordinary Portland cement (opc) in concrete. IJRRAS 10(3) www.arpapress.com/Volumes/Vol10Issue3/IJRRAS_10_3_08.pdf
[14]
Mmom, P. C. and, Arokoya, S. B. (2010) Mangrove Forest Depletion, Biodiversity Loss and Traditional Resources Management Practices in the Niger Delta, Nigeria. Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology, 2 (1), 28-34.
[15]
Powell, C. B., Hart, A. I. and Deekae, S. (1985) Market Survey of the PeriwinkleTympanotonus fascatus in Rivers State: Sizes, Prices, Trade Routes and Exploitation levels. Proceedings of the 4th Annual Conference of the Fisheries Society of Nigeria (FISON), Fisheries Society of Nigeria, Port Harcourt, Nigeria, 55-61.
[16]
Jamabo, N. and Chinda, A. (2010) Aspects of the Ecology of Tympanotonous fuscatus var fuscatus (Linnaeus,1758) in the Mangrove Swamps of the Upper Bonny River, Niger Delta, Nigeria. Current Research Journal of Biological Sciences, 2(1), 42-47.
[17]
Aku, S. Y., Yawas, D.S., Madakson, P.B., and Amaren, S.G. (2012) Characterization of Periwinkle Shell as Asbestos-Free Brake Pad Materials. The Pacific Journal of Science and Technology 13(2), 57-63.
[18]
Painter, T.J. and Hemmer, P.C. (1979) The distribution of calcium carbonate layers in periwinkle and snail shells: new evidence from gastropod molhusks. Calcium carbonate Research, 69, 217 - 226.
[19]
Njoku, R. E, Okona, A. E., and Ikpakia, T. C., (2011) Effects Of Variation Of Particle Size And Weight Fraction On The Tensile Strength And Modulus Of Periwinkle Shell Reinforced Polyester Composite. Nigerian Journal of Technology l. 30(2).
[20]
Ihueze, C. C., Okafor, E. C., Nwigbo, S. C. (2013) Optimization of Hardness Strengths Response of Plantain Fibers Reinforced Polyester Matrix Composites (PFRP) Applying Taguchi Robust Design. International Journal of Engineering, 26(1), 1-11.
[21]
Acott, C. (1999) The diving Law-ers: A brief resume of their lives. South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society journal 29(1), 39-42.
[22]
IPC (1995) Test Methods Manual: Tensile Strength, Elongation and Modulus. Institute for Interconnecting and packaging electronic circuits, 2
[23]
Courtney, T.H. (1990) Mechanical Behavior of Materials. McGraw-Hill, New York.
Open Science Scholarly Journals
Open Science is a peer-reviewed platform, the journals of which cover a wide range of academic disciplines and serve the world's research and scholarly communities. Upon acceptance, Open Science Journals will be immediately and permanently free for everyone to read and download.
CONTACT US
Office Address:
228 Park Ave., S#45956, New York, NY 10003
Phone: +(001)(347)535 0661
E-mail:
LET'S GET IN TOUCH
Name
E-mail
Subject
Message
SEND MASSAGE
Copyright © 2013-, Open Science Publishers - All Rights Reserved