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Optimization of Production of Biodiesel from Cow-Tallow Using Response Surface Methodology
Current Issue
Volume 1, 2014
Issue 4 (September)
Pages: 19-27   |   Vol. 1, No. 4, September 2014   |   Follow on         
Paper in PDF Downloads: 48   Since Aug. 28, 2015 Views: 1573   Since Aug. 28, 2015
Authors
[1]
Nwadike Emmanuel Chinagoron, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, P. M. B. 5025.
[2]
Ezeliora Chukwuemeka Daniel, Department of Industrial and Production Engineering, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, P. M. B. 5025.
[3]
Achebe Chukwunonso, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, P. M. B. 5025.
[4]
Chukwuneke Jeremiah, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, P. M. B. 5025.
Abstract
In this research work, the process of biodiesel production in a pilot plant was studied using cow tallow as raw material, methanol as the solvent and potassium hydroxide as catalysts. A statistical tool was used for the experiment, to get the optimum conditions (temperature 650C, Catalyst 1.25 wt%, Time 60 mins, methanol/oil molar ratio 6) for the yield of the biodiesel. The experimental process variables and the production yield were correlated using a second order polynomial regression technique. The software employed was design expert version 8. The model describes the correlation between the experimental process variables and the optimum production yield. The tallow used in the production had a molecular weight of 860g. Its oil had a density value of 0.8g/ml, iodine value of 63.45, viscosity at 300C was 9.83pas, acid value was 1.96, free fatty acid (FFA) of 0.98%, saponification value of 82.75mleq/kg, specific gravity of 0.898, flash point of 1100C, cloud point of 950C and Calorific value also called Higher Heating Value (HHV) of 38.365MJ/Kg. These properties of the tallow yielded a biodiesel of 94% at optimum conditions of 600C, 1.25wt% catalyst, 60mins and a methanol/oil molar ratio of 6. The produced biodiesel had a density of 0.82g/ml, iodine value of 126.9, viscosity of 4.32pas at 300C, acid value of 0.561, FFA of 0.2805%, saponification value of 137.45mleq/kg. Flash point, cloud point and centane number of the biodiesel produced are 1390C, 980C and 57.5 respectively, with fat content, protein content, ash content, moisture content, fiber content and carbohydrate content values of 10%, 2.8%, 5%, 5%, 20% and 37.2% respectively.
Keywords
Optimization, Groundnut Seed Oil, Castor Oil, Cow Tallow Oil, ANOVA, Response Surface Method (RSM), Optimum Yield, Biodiesel
Reference
[1]
Sahoo, P.K. Das, L.M. (2009). Process optimization for biodiesel production from Jatropha, Karanja and Polanga oils. Fuel, 88, 1588–1594.
[2]
Zenozi A. (1986). Evaluation of Tractor MF-399 Using Biodiesel and Diesel Fuel Compositions.MSc Thesis, Agricultural College, University of TarbiatModares.
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