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Effect of Some Process Parameters on Process Loss from Palm Kernel Under Compressive Loading
Current Issue
Volume 4, 2017
Issue 5 (September)
Pages: 66-73   |   Vol. 4, No. 5, September 2017   |   Follow on         
Paper in PDF Downloads: 82   Since Aug. 14, 2017 Views: 1288   Since Aug. 14, 2017
Authors
[1]
Ozumba Isaac Chinedu, National Centre for Agricultural Mechanization, (NCAM), Ilorin, Nigeria.
[2]
Oje Kayode, Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Department, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria.
[3]
Nwosu Caesar, Agro-Industrial Development and Extension Department, NCAM, Ilorin, Nigeria.
Abstract
The effect of some process parameters on Process Loss from palm karnel oil (PKO) expressed under compressive loading was studied. Pam Kernel (Dura Variety) was obtained, dried to 4.5% moisture content and were crushed into a meal. The crushed samples were classified into fine and coarse particle sizes using a set of laboratory Endocotts Test Sieves and Shaker. A model laboratory mechanical oil expeller with a temperature controller and a force measuring device was used to express oil from the palm kernel under uniaxil compression using a hydraulic press. The effects of heating temperature, applied pressure and particle size on process loss was studiedat heating temperatures of 70, 90, 110 and 130°C and applied pressures of 6.0, 9.0, 12.0, and 15.0 MPa. The results obtained were subjected to statistical analysis using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), New Duncan Multiple Range Test (NDMRT) and T-test. The study revealed that process loss during the experiment increases significantly as the heating temperature increases from 70°C to 130°C at any applied pressure for both particle sizes investigated. The study also showed that heating temperature of 130°C gave the highest process loss while the minimum was recorded at 70°C. From the study, it was also established that process loss increases as the applied pressure increases from 6 MPa to 15 MPa at any heating temperature for the fine and coarse particle sizes. The highest and the minimum process loss were recorded at applied pressure of 15 MPa and 6 MPa respectively while particle size had no effect on process loss. It is then concluded that In order to minimize process loss during mechanical expression of Palm Kernel oil under uniaxial compression, the critical process conditions (heating temperature and applied pressure) must be properly controlled.
Keywords
Palm Kernel Oil, Process Loss, Uniaxial Compression, Mechanical Expression
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