Welcome to Open Science
Contact Us
Home Books Journals Submission Open Science Join Us News
A Review of Head Injury and Finite Element Head Models
Current Issue
Volume 1, 2014
Issue 5 (November)
Pages: 28-52   |   Vol. 1, No. 5, November 2014   |   Follow on         
Paper in PDF Downloads: 197   Since Aug. 28, 2015 Views: 2456   Since Aug. 28, 2015
Authors
[1]
Kwong Ming Tse, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.
[2]
Siak Piang Lim, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore ; National University of Singapore (Suzhou) Research Institute, Suzhou Industrial Park, Suzhou, Jiang Su, People's Republic of China.
[3]
Vincent Beng Chye Tan, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.
[4]
Heow Pueh Lee, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore ; National University of Singapore (Suzhou) Research Institute, Suzhou Industrial Park, Suzhou, Jiang Su, People's Republic of China.
Abstract
Head injury, being one of the main causes of death or permanent disability in everyday life, continues to remain as a major health problem with significant socioeconomic costs. Therefore, there is a need for biomechanical studies of head injury, its mechanisms and its tolerance to external loading. Throughout the decades, finite element head models (FEHMs) have been used to assess the biomechanics of head injury mechanism. Given the fact that some of the internal biomechanical responses of the brain can neither be measured easily nor in-vivo by experimental techniques, FEHM offers a cost-effective alternative to experimental method in estimating the internal biomechanical responses of human head. This review paper aims to provide researchers in this field with some background information about head injury. A thorough literature review has been done to summarize the essential details in terms of modeling, material properties and boundary conditions of various FEHMs. The outline of this review is divided into two main sections. The first section consists of definitions, epidemiology, mechanism and classifications of head injury as well as some basic anatomy of human head. Beginning with the history of FEHMs and their revolution in geometry and complexity, the second section would be focusing on the various mechanical aspects of the FEHMs. Various boundary conditions and validations used by the FEHMs are also included in the review article. In addition, important findings and head injury criteria from these FEHMs are summarized.
Keywords
Head Injury, Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI), Finite Element (FE), Head Model
Reference
[1]
Mayer, T., Walker, M. L., Johnson, D. G. and Matlak, M. E. (1981). Causes of morbidity and mortality in severe pediatric trauma. JAMA 245(7), pp. 719-721.
[2]
Bruce, D. A., Alavi, A., Bilaniuk, L., Dolinskas, C., Obrist, W. and Uzzell, B. (1981). Diffuse cerebral swelling following head injuries in children: the syndrome of "malignant brain edema". J Neurosurg 54(2), pp. 170-178.
[3]
Tepas Iii, J. J., DiScala, C., Ramenofsky, M. L. and Barlow, B. (1990). Mortality and head injury: The pediatric perspective. Journal of Pediatric Surgery 25(1), pp. 92-96.
[4]
Jennett, B. and Frankowski, R. F. (1990). The epidemiology of head injury. In: Vinken, P. J., Bruyn, G. W. and Klawans, H. L. (Eds.) Handbook of Clinical Neurology. pp. 1-16. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers B.V.
[5]
Miller, T. R., Pindus, N. M., Douglass, J. B. and Rossman, S. B. (1995). Databook on Nonfatal Injury: Incidence, Costs and Consequences. Washington: The Urban Institute Press.
[6]
Gennarelli, T. A., Champion, H. R., Sacco, W. J., Copes, W. S. and Alves, W. M. (1989). Mortality of patients with head injury and extracranial injury treated in trauma centers. J Trauma 29(9), pp. 1193-1201; discussion 1201-1192.
[7]
Bullock, R. and Graham, D. I. (1997). Non-penetrating injuries of the head. In: Cooper, G. J. and Dudley, H. (Eds.) Scientific Foundations of Trauma. pp. 101-126. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.
[8]
WHO (2004). The global burden of disease: 2004 update, World Health Organization, Geneva.
[9]
MedlinePlus (2012). Available from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/imagepages/19080.htm. [Accessed 11th November 2013].
[10]
Marieb, E. N., Mallatt, J. and Wilhelm, P. B. (2008). Human Anatomy. 5th. ed. San Francisco: Benjamin Cummings.
[11]
Saladin, K. S. (2007). The brain and cranial nerves. In: Saladin, K. S. (Ed.) Human Anatomy. International Edition. ed. pp. 414-451. New York: McGraw Hill Higher Education.
[12]
Shands Healthcare (2004). Available from: http://www.shands.org/health/imagepages/19236.htm. [Accessed 16th March 2011].
[13]
Focus Information Technology (2002). Available from: http://www.obfocus.com/questions/qanda10.htm. [Accessed 16th March 2011].
[14]
Field, J. H. (1976). Epidemiology of Head Injuries in England and Wales: With Particular Application to Rehabilitation. London: HMSO.
[15]
Anderson, D. and R., M. (1980). Report on the national head and spinal cord injury survey. Journal of Neurosurgery (Supplement) 53, pp. S1-S43.
[16]
Kraus, J. F. and McArthur, D. L. (2000). Epidemiology of brain injury. In: Cooper, P. R. and Golfinos, J. G. (Eds.) Head Injury. 4. ed. pp. 1-26. New York: McGraw-Hill.
[17]
Imhof, H. G. and Lenzlinger, P. (2010). Traumatic brain injury. In: Oestern, H.-J., Trentz, O. and Uranues, S. (Eds.) Head, Thoracic, Abdominal, and Vascular Injuries: Trauma Surgery I. Heidelberg, Berlin: Springer.
[18]
Selecki, B., Ring, I. and Simpson, D. (1981). Injuries to the head, spine and peripheral nerves. Report on a study. Sydney: NSW Government Printer.
[19]
Fearnside, M. R. and Simpson, D. A. (1997). Epidemiology. In: Reilly, P. and Bullock, R. (Eds.) Head injury: Pathophysiology and management of severe closed injury. pp. 1-23. London: Chapman & Hall Medical.
[20]
Annegers, J. F., Grabow, J. D., Kurland, L. T. and Laws, E. R., Jr. (1980). The incidence, causes, and secular trends of head trauma in Olmsted County, Minnesota, 1935-1974. Neurology 30(9), pp. 912-919.
[21]
Goldsmith, P. D., Werner (2001). The State of Head Injury Biomechanics: Past, Present, and Future: Part 1. Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering 29(5&6), pp. 441-600.
[22]
Jagger, J., Levine, J. and Jane, J. (1984). Epidemiologic features of head injury in a predominantly rural population. Journal of Trauma 24, pp. 40-44.
[23]
WHO (1978). International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, ICD-9, 9th revision, World Health Organization, Geneva.
[24]
WHO (1979). International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Clinical Modification, ICD-9-CM, 9th revision, World Health Organization, Ann Arbor, MI.
[25]
WHO (1992). International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, ICD-10, 10th revision, World Health Organization, Geneva.
[26]
WHO (2007). International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision, Version for 2007, World Health Organization, Geneva.
[27]
Smith, D. H. and Meaney, D. F. (2000). Axonal damage in traumatic brain injury. Neuroscientist 6(6), pp. 483-495.
[28]
Lollis, S. S., Quebada, P. B. and Friedman, J. A. (2008). Traumatic brain injuries. In: Young, G. B. and Wijdicks, E. F. M. (Eds.) Handbook of Clinical Neurology. pp. 17-41. Edinburgh; New York: Elsevier Science Publishers B.V.
[29]
Jennett, B. and Teasdale, G. (1981). Management of Head Injury. Philadelphia: FA Davis.
[30]
Jennett, B. (1996). Epidemiology of head injury. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry 60, pp. 362-369.
[31]
Ochsner, A. (1931). The diagnosis and treatment of acute craniocerebral injuries: A collective review Part II Treatment of acute craniocerebral injuries. The American Journal of Surgery 12(3), pp. 523-531.
[32]
Mansfield, R. T., Marion, D. W. and Kochanek, P. M. (1995). Traumatic head or spinal injury. In: McCloskey, K. and Orr, R. (Eds.) Pediatric Transport Medicine. pp. 285-297. St. Louis, MO: Mosby.
[33]
Johnston, I. H. and Rowan, J. O. (1974). Raised intracranial pressure and cerebral blood flow. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 37(5), pp. 585-592.
[34]
Adams, J. H., Graham, G. I. and Gennarelli, T. A. (1982). Neuropathology of acceleration-induced head injury in sub-human primate. In: Grossman, R. G. and Gildenberg, P. L. (Eds.) Head injury: Basic and Clinical Aspects pp. 141-150. New York: Raven Press.
[35]
Gennarelli, T. A. and Thibault, L. E. (1982). Biomechanics of acute subdural hematoma. J Trauma 22(8), pp. 680-686.
[36]
Hardy, W. N., Khalil, T. B. and King, A. I. (1994). Literature review of head injury biomechanics. International Journal of Impact Engineering 15(4), pp. 561-586.
[37]
Denny-Brown, D. and Russell, W. R. (1940). Experimental cerebral concussion. J Physiol 99(1), p. 153.
[38]
Gross, A. G. (1958). A new theory on the dynamics of brain concussion and brain injury. J Neurosurg 15(5), pp. 548-561.
[39]
Holbourn, A. (1943). Mechanics of head injuries. Lancet 2, pp. 438-441.
[40]
King, A. I., Yang, K. H., Zhang, L., Hardy, W. and Viano, D. (2003). Is head injury caused by linear or angular acceleration? In: Proceedings of International IRCOBI Conference on the Biomechanics of Impacts, Lisbon, Portugal, pp. 1-12.
[41]
Löwenhielm, P. (1975). Mathematical simulation of gliding contusions. Journal of Biomechanics 8(6), pp. 351-356.
[42]
Gennarelli, T. A., Adams, J. H. and Graham, D. I. (1981). Acceleration Induced Head Injury in the Monkey. I. The Model, Its Mechanical and Physiological Correlates. In: Jellinger, K., Gullotta, F. and Mossakowski, M. (Eds.) Experimental and Clinical Neuropathology. pp. 23-25: Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
[43]
Gennarelli, T. A., Thibault, L. E., Adams, J. H., Graham, D. I., Thompson, C. J. and Marcincin, R. P. (1982). Diffuse axonal injury and traumatic coma in the primate. Ann Neurol 12(6), pp. 564-574.
[44]
Gurdjian, E. S. and Lissner, H. R. (1945). Mechanism of Head Injury as Studied by the Cathode Ray Oscilloscope. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 102(4), p. 425.
[45]
Thomas, L. M., Roberts, V. L. and Gurdjian, E. S. (1967). Impact-induced pressure gradients along three orthogonal axes in the human skull. J Neurosurg 26(3), pp. 316-321.
[46]
Gadd, C. W. (1966). Use of a weighted impulse criterion for estimating injury hazard. In: Proceedings of 10th Stapp Car Crash Conference, New York, USA, pp. 164-174: Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE).
[47]
Versac, J. (1971). A review of severity of index. In: Proceedings of 15th Stapp Car Crash Conference, Warrendale, USA, pp. 771-796: Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE), SAE Paper No. 710881.
[48]
Goldsmith, W. (1981). Current controversies in the stipulation of head injury criteria. J Biomech 14(12), pp. 883-884.
[49]
Alvarez-Caldas, C., Quesada, A., Roman, J. L. S. and Olmeda, E. (2007). Head injury criterion: the best way to evaluate head damage? International Journal of Vehicle Design 45(3), pp. 411-425.
[50]
Zhang, L., Yang, K. H. and King, A. I. (2004). A proposed injury threshold for mild traumatic brain injury. Journal of Biomechanical Engineering 126(2), pp. 226-236.
[51]
Simms, C. and Wood, D. (2009). Injury mechanisms and injury criteria. In: Pedestrian and Cyclist Impact Mechanics. pp. 75-97. Netherlands: Springer.
[52]
Newman, J. A. (1986). A generalized acceleration model for brain injury threshold (GAMBIT). In: Proceedings of International IRCOBI Conference on the Biomechanics of Impacts, Zurich, Switzerland, pp. 121-131.
[53]
Newman, J. A., Shewchenko, N. and Welbourne, E. (2000). A proposed new biomechanical head injury assessment function - the maximum power index. In: Proceedings of 44th Stapp Car Crash Conference, Atlanta, USA: Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE), SAE Paper No. 2000-01-SC16.
[54]
Hardy, C. H. and Marcal, P. V. (1973). Elastic analysis of a skull. Journal of Applied Mechanics 40(4), pp. 838-842.
[55]
Shugar, T. A. (1975). Transient structural response of the linear skull brain system. In: Proceedings of 19th Stapp Car Crash Conference, San Diego, USA, pp. 581-614: Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE).
[56]
Kenner, V. H. and Goldsmith, W. (1972). Dynamic loading of a fluid-filled spherical shell. International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 14(9), pp. 557-568.
[57]
Chan, H. S. (1974). Mathematical model for closed head impact. In: Proceedings of 18th Stapp Car Crash Conference, Ann Arbor, USA, pp. 557-579: Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE).
[58]
Khalil, T. B. and Hubbard, R. P. (1977). Parametric study of head response by finite element modeling. Journal of Biomechanics 10(2), pp. 119-132.
[59]
Hosey, R. R. and K., L. Y. (1981). A homeomorphic finite element model of the human head and neck. In: Simon, B. R., Gallagher, R. H., Johnson, P. C. and Gross, J. F. (Eds.) Finite elements in biomechanics. pp. 379-401: Wiley & Son.
[60]
Yang, J., Dai, J. and Zhuang, Z. (2009). Human head modeling and personal head protective equipment: a literature review. In: Duffy, V. (Ed.) Digital Human Modeling. pp. 661-670. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
[61]
Ruan, J. S., Khatil, T. B. and King, A. I. (1993). Finite element modeling of direct head impact. In: Proceedings of 37th Stapp Car Crash Conference, San Antonio, USA, pp. 69-81: Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE), SAE Paper No. 933114.
[62]
Zhou, C., Khalil, C. T. B. and King, A. I. (1995). A new model comparing impact responses of the homogeneous and inhomogeneous human brain. In: Proceedings of 39th Stapp Car Crash Conference, San Diego, USA, pp. 121-137: Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE), SAE Paper No. 952714.
[63]
Ward, C. C., Chan, M. and Nahum, A. M. (1980). Intracranial pressure-a brain injury criterion. In: Proceedings of 24th Stapp Car Crash Conference, Warrendale, USA, pp. 347-360: Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE), SAE Paper No. 801304.
[64]
Newman, J., Barr, C., Beusenberg, M., Fournier, E., Shewchenko, N., Welbourne, E. and Withnall C. (2000). A new biomechanical assessment of mild traumatic brain injury – Part 2 – Results and conclusions. In: Proceedings of International IRCOBI Conference on the Biomechanics of Impacts, Montpellier, France, pp. 223-233.
[65]
Kang, H. S., Willinger, R., Diaw, B. M. and Chinn, B. (1997). Modeling of the human head under impact conditions: a parametric study. In: Proceedings of 41st Stapp Car Crash Conference, Lake Buena Vista, USA, pp. 315-328: Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE), SAE Paper No. 973338.
[66]
Anderson, R. W. G., Brown, C. J., Blumbergs, P. C., Scott, G., Finney, J. W., Jones, N. R. and McLean, A. J. (1999). Mechanisms of axonal injury: an experimental and numerical study of a sheep model of head impact. In: Proceedings of International IRCOBI Conference on the Biomechanics of Impacts, Sitges, Spain, pp. 107-120.
[67]
Zhou, C., Kahlil, T. and Dragovic, L. (1996). Head injury assessment of a real world crash by finite element modeling. In: Proceedings of Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development (AGARD), Neuilly-sur-Seine, France.
[68]
Kang, H. S., Willinger, R., Diaw, B. and Chinn, B. (1997). Validation of a 3D anatomic human head model and replication of head impact in motorcycle accident by finite element modeling. In: Proceedings of 41st Stapp Car Crash Conference, Lake Buena Vista, USA, pp. 329-338.
[69]
Miller, R. T., Margulies, S. S., Leoni, M., Nonaka, M., Chen, X., Smith, D. H. and Meaney, D. F. (1998). Finite element modeling approaches for predicting injury in an experimental model of severe diffuse axonal injury. In: Proceedings of 42nd Stapp Car Crash Conference, Tempe, USA, pp. 155-166: Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE), SAE Paper No. 983154.
[70]
Anderson, R. W. G. (2000). A study of the biomechanics of axonal injury. PhD Dissertation. University of Adelaide.
[71]
Willinger, R., Baumgartner, D., Chinn, B. and Neale, M. (2000). Head tolerance limits derived from numerical replication of real world accidents. In: Proceedings of International IRCOBI Conference on the Biomechanics of Impacts, Montpellier, France, pp. 209-221.
[72]
Baumgartner, D., Willinger, R., Shewchenko, N. and Beusenberg, M. (2001). Tolerance limits for mild traumatic brain injury derived from numerical head impact replication. In: Proceedings of International IRCOBI Conference on the Biomechanics of Impacts, Isle of Man, pp. 353-355.
[73]
Willinger, R. and Baumgartner, D. (2001). Numerical and physical modelling of the human head under impact – toward new injury criterion. International Journal of Vehicle Design 32(1-2), pp. 94–115.
[74]
Willinger, R. and Baumgartner, D. (2003). Human head tolerance limits to specific injury mechanisms. International Journal of Crashworthiness 8(6), pp. 605-617.
[75]
Baumgartner, D. and Willinger, R. (2005). Numerical Modeling of the Human Head under Impact: New Injury Mechanisms and Tolerance Limits. In: Gilchrist, M. D. (Ed.) IUTAM Symposium on Impact Biomechanics: From Fundamental Insights to Applications. pp. 195-203: Springer Netherlands.
[76]
Deck, C. and Willinger, R. (2008). Improved head injury criteria based on head FE model. International Journal of Crashworthiness 13(6), pp. 667-678.
[77]
Galbraith, J. A., Thibault, L. E. and Matteson, D. R. (1993). Mechanical and electrical responses of the squid giant axon to simple elongation. J Biomech Eng 115(1), pp. 13-22.
[78]
Shreiber, D. I., Bain, A. C. and Meaney, D. F. (1997). In vivo thresholds for mechanical injury to the blood-brain barrier. In: Proceedings of 41st Stapp Car Crash Conference, Orlando, USA, pp. 277-291: Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE), SAE Paper No. 973335.
[79]
Bain, A. C. and Meaney, D. F. (2000). Tissue-level thresholds for axonal damage in an experimental model of central nervous system white matter injury. J Biomech Eng 122(6), pp. 615-622.
[80]
King, A. I., Yang, K., Zhang, L. and Hardy, W. (2003). Is head injury caused by linear or angular acceleration? In: Proceedings of International Research Council on the Biomechanics of Impact (IRCOBI) Conference, Lisbon, Portugal, pp. 1-12.
[81]
McElhaney, J. H., Mate, P. I. and Roberts, V. L. (1973). A new crash test device--"Repeatable Pete". In: Proceedings of 17th Stapp Car Crash Conference, Oklahoma, USA, pp. 467-507: Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE), SAE Paper No. 730983.
[82]
Ono, K., Kikuchi, A., Nakamura, M., Kobayashi, H. and Nakamura, H. (1980). Human head tolerance to sagittal impact reliable estimation deduced from experimental head injury using sub-human primates and human cadaver skulls. In: Proceedings of 24th Stapp Car Crash Conference, Warrendale, USA, pp. 101-160: Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE), SAE-801303.
[83]
Ommaya, A. K., Yarnell, P., Hirsch, A. E. and Harris, E. H. (1967). Scaling of experimental data on cerebral concussion in sub-human primates to concussion threshold for man. In: Proceedings of 11th Stapp Car Crash Conference, Warrendale, USA, pp. 73-80: Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE), SAE Paper No. 670906.
[84]
Princemaille, Y., Trosseille, X., Mack, P., Tarriere, C., Breton, F. and Renault, B. (1989). Some new data related to human tolerance obtained from volunteer boxers. In: Proceedings of 33rd Stapp Car Crash Conference, Washington, USA: Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE), SAE Paper No. 892435.
[85]
Margulies, S. S. and Thibault, L. E. (1992). A proposed tolerance criterion for diffuse axonal injury in man. Journal of Biomechanics 25(8), pp. 917-923.
[86]
McElhaney, J. H., Fogle, J. L., Melvin, J. W., Haynes, R. R., Roberts, V. L. and Alem, N. M. (1970). Mechanical properties on cranial bone. J Biomech 3(5), pp. 495-511.
[87]
Schaller, A., Voigt, C., Huempfner-Hierl, H., Hemprich, A. and Hierl, T. (2012). Transient finite element analysis of a traumatic fracture of the zygomatic bone caused by a head collision. International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 41(1), pp. 66-73.
[88]
Got, C., Patel, A., Fayon, A., Tarriere, C. and Walfisch, G. (1978). Results of experimental head impact on cadavers: The various data obtained and the relation to some measured physical parameters. In: Proceedings of 22nd Stapp Car Crash Conference, Ann Arbor, USA, pp. 57-99: Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE), SAE Paper No. 780887.
[89]
Gurdjian, E. and Webster, J. (1958). Mechanism, Diagnosis and Management of Head Injury. Boston: Little, Brown & Company.
[90]
Yogonandan, N., Pintar, F. A., Sances, A., Walsh, P. R., Ewing, C. L., Thomas, D. J. and Snyder, R. G. (1995). Biomechanics of skull fracture. J. Neurotrauma 12(4), pp. 658-668.
[91]
Allsop, D. L., Perl, T. R. and Warner, C. Y. (1991). Force/deflection and fracture characteristics of the temporo-parietal region of the human head. In: Proceedings of 35th Stapp Car Crash Conference, San Diego. USA, pp. 269-278: Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE), SAE Paper No. 751163.
[92]
Ruan, J. S. and Prasad, P. (1995). Coupling of a finite element human head model with a lumped parameter Hybrid III dummy model: preliminary results. Journal of Neurotrauma 12(4), pp. 725-734.
[93]
Raul, J.-S., Deck, C., Willinger, R. and Ludes, B. (2008). Finite-element models of the human head and their applications in forensic practice. International Journal of Legal Medicine 122(5), pp. 359-366.
[94]
Jin, X. (2009). Biomechanical response and constitutive modeling of bovine pia-arachnoid complex. PhD Dissertation. Detroit: Wayne State University.
[95]
Zhang, L., Yang, K. H., Dwarampudi, R., Omori, K., Li, T., Chang, K., Hardy, W. N., Khalil, T. B. and King, A. I. (2001). Recent advances in brain injury research: a new human head model development and validation. In: Proceedings of 45th Stapp Car Crash Conference, San Antonio, USA, pp. 369-394: Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE), SAE Paper No. 2001-22-0017.
[96]
Khalil, T. B. and Viano, D. C. (1982). Critical issues in finite element modelling of head impact. In: Proceedings of 26th Stapp Car Crash Conference, Ann Arbor, USA, pp. 87-102: Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE), SAE Paper No. 821150.
[97]
Kleiven, S. and Hardy, W. N. (2002). Correlation of an FE model of the human head with local brain motion–consequences for injury prediction. In: Proceedings of 46th Stapp Car Crash Conference, Ponte Vedra, USA, pp. 123-144: Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE), SAE Paper No. 2002-22-0007.
[98]
Mendis, K. K., Stalnaker, R. L. and Advani, S. H. (1995). A constitutive relationship for large deformation finite element modeling of brain tissue. J Biomech Eng 117(3), pp. 279-285.
[99]
Marjoux, D., Baumgartner, D., Deck, C. and Willinger, R. (2008). Head injury prediction capability of the HIC, HIP, SIMon and ULP criteria. Accident Analysis & Prevention 40(3), pp. 1135-1148.
[100]
Kleiven, S. (2003). Influence of impact direction on the human head in prediction of subdural hematoma. J Neurotrauma 20(4), pp. 365-379.
[101]
KTH (2008). Numerical Modeling of the Human Head. Available from: http://www.kth.se/en/sth/forskning/forskningsomraden/2.3593/projekt/2.3790/numerisk-modellering-av-det-manskliga-huvudet-1.14227. [Accessed 4th April 2011].
[102]
Takhounts, E. and Eppinger, R. (2003). On the development of the SIMon finite element head model. In: Proceedings of 47th Stapp Car Crash Conference, San Diego, USA, pp. 107-133: Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE), SAE Paper No. 03S-04.
[103]
Takhounts, E. G., Ridella, S. A., Hasija, V., Tannous, R. E., Campbell, J. Q., Malone, D., Danelson, K., Stitzel, J., Rowson, S. and Duma, S. (2008). Investigation of traumatic brain injuries using the next generation of simulated injury monitor (SIMon) finite element head model. In: Proceedings of 52th Stapp Car Crash Conference, San Antonio, USA, pp. 1-31: Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE), SAE Paper No. 08S-09.
[104]
Horgan, T. J. and Gilchrist, M. (2003). The creation of three-dimensional finite element models for simulating head impact biomechanics. International Journal of Crashworthiness 8(4), pp. 353-366.
[105]
Nickell, R. and Marcal, P. (1974). In vacuo model dynamic response of the human skull. Journal of Engineering Industry 4, pp. 490-194.
[106]
Shugar, T. A. and Kahona, M. C. (1975). Development of finite element head injury model. Journal of American Society of Civil Engineers 101, pp. 223-239.
[107]
Ward, C. C. and Thompson, R. B. (1975). The development of a detailed finite element brain model. In: Proceedings of 19th Stapp Car Crash Conference, New York, USA, pp. 641-674: Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE), SAE Paper No. 751163.
[108]
Nahum, A. M., Smith, R. and Ward, C. C. (1977). Intracranial pressure dynamics during head impact. In: Proceedings of 21st Stapp Car Crash Conference, San Diego, USA, pp. 339–366: Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE), SAE Paper No. 770922.
[109]
Ueno, K., Melvin, J. W., Rouhana, M. E. and Lighthall, J. W. (1991). Two-dimensional finite element model of the cortical impact method for mechanical brain injury. In: 112th American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Winter Annual Meeting, Applied Mechanics Division (AMD). pp. 121-154.
[110]
Ueno, K., Melvin, J. W., Lundquist, E. and Lee, M. C. (1989). Two-dimensional finite element analysis of human brain impact responses: application of a scaling law. American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), Applied Mechanics Division (AMD) 106, pp. 123-124.
[111]
Ruan, J. S., Khalil, T. and King, A. I. (1994). Dynamic response of the human head to impact by three-dimensional finite element analysis. J Biomech Eng 116(1), pp. 44-50.
[112]
Willinger, R., Kang, H. S. and Diaw, B. (1999). Three-dimensional human head finite-element model validation against two experimental impacts. Annals of Biomedical Engineering 27(3), pp. 403-410.
[113]
Trosseille, X., Tarriere, C. and Lavaste, F. (1992). Development of a FEM of the human head according to a specific test protocol. In: Proceedings of 30th Stapp Car Crash Conference, Warrendale, USA, pp. 235-253: Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE), SAE Paper No. 922527.
[114]
Kumaresan, S. and Radhakrishnan, S. (1996). Importance of partitioning membranes of the brain and the influence of the neck in head injury modelling. Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing 34(1), pp. 27-32.
[115]
Hardy, W. N., Foster, C., Mason, M., Yang, K., King, A. and Tashman, S. (2001). Investigation of head injury mechanisms using neutral density technology and high-speed biplanar X-ray. In: Proceedings of 45th Stapp Car Crash Conference, San Antonio, USA, pp. 337-368.
[116]
Belingardi, G., Chiandussi, G. and Gaviglio, I. (2005). Development and Validation of a New Finite Element Model of Human Head. In: Proceedings of 19th International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles, Washington, USA, pp. 1-9: Transportation Research Board of the National Academies (TRB), TRB Paper No. 05-0441.
[117]
Zong, Z., Lee, H. P. and Lu, C. (2006). A three-dimensional human head finite element model and power flow in a human head subject to impact loading. Journal of Biomechanics 39(2), pp. 284-292.
[118]
Doblaré, M., García, J. M. and Gómez, M. J. (2004). Modelling bone tissue fracture and healing: a review. Engineering Fracture Mechanics 71(13-14), pp. 1809-1840.
[119]
Pietruszczak, S., Inglis, D. and Pande, G. N. (1999). A fabric-dependent fracture criterion for bone. Journal of Biomechanics 32(10), pp. 1071-1079.
[120]
Kuijpers, A. H., Claessens, M. H. and Sauren, A. A. (1995). The influence of different boundary conditions on the response of the head to impact: a two-dimensional finite element study. J Neurotrauma 12(4), pp. 715-724.
[121]
Shatsky, S. A., Evans, D. E., Miller, F. and Martins, A. N. (1974). High-speed angiography of experimental head injury. J Neurosurg 41(5), pp. 523-530.
[122]
DiMasi, F., Marcus, J. H. and Eppinger, R. H. (1991). 3D anatomic brain for relating cortical strains to automobile crash loading. In: Proceedings of 13th International Technical Conference on Experimental Safety Vehicles, Paris, France: Paper No. 91–S8–O–11.
[123]
Ruan, J. S. (1994). Impact biomechanics of head Injury by mathematical modeling. PhD Dissertation. Detroit: Wayne State University.
[124]
Turquier, F., Kang, H. S., Trosseille, X., Willinger, R., Trosseille, X., Lavaste, F., Tarriere, C. and Domont, A. (1996). Validation study of a 3D finite element head model against experimental data. In: Proceedings of 40th Stapp Car Crash Conference, Albuquerque, USA, pp. 283-293: Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE), SAE Paper No. 962431.
[125]
Miller, K. and Chinzei, K. (1997). Constitutive modelling of brain tissue: Experiment and theory. Journal of Biomechanics 30(11-12), pp. 1115-1121.
[126]
Ogden, R. W. (1984). Non-Linear Elastic Deformations. New York: Dover Publications, Inc.
[127]
Estes, M. S. and McElhaney, J. H. (1970). Response of brain tissue of compressive loading. In: Proceedings of 4th ASME J. Biomechanics Conference: American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), ASME Paper No. 70-BHF-13.
[128]
Orr, T. E. and Carter, D. R. (1985). Stress analyses of joint arthroplasty in the proximal humerus. Journal of Orthopaedic Research 3(3), pp. 360-371.
[129]
Tanne, K., Hiraga, J., Kakiuchi, K., Yamagata, Y. and Sakuda, M. (1989). Biomechanical effect of anteriorly directed extraoral forces on the craniofacial complex: A study using the finite element method. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics 95(3), pp. 200-207.
[130]
Daas, M., Dubois, G., Bonnet, A. S., Lipinski, P. and Rignon-Bret, C. (2008). A complete finite element model of a mandibular implant-retained overdenture with two implants: Comparison between rigid and resilient attachment configurations. Med Eng Phys 30(2), pp. 218-225.
[131]
Carter, D. R. and Spengler, D. M. (1978). Mechanical properties and composition of cortical bone. Clin Orthop Relat Res (135), pp. 192-217.
[132]
Jiroušek, O., Jíra, J., Jírová, J. and Micka, M. (2005). Finite Element Model of Human Skull Used for Head Injury Criteria Assessment. In: Gilchrist, M. D. (Ed.) IUTAM Symposium on Impact Biomechanics: From Fundamental Insights to Applications. pp. 459-467: Springer Netherlands.
[133]
Wood, J. L. (1971). Dynamic response of human cranial bone. Journal of Biomechanics 4(1), pp. 1-2, IN1-IN3, 3-12.
[134]
Willinger, R., Diaw, B. M. and Kang, H. S. (2000). Finite element modelling of skull fractures caused by direct impact. International Journal of Crashworthiness 5(3), pp. 249-258.
[135]
Melvin, J. W., Robbins, D. H. and Roberts, V. L. (1969). The mechanical behavior of the diploe of the human skull in compression. In: Proceedings of 11th Midwestern Mechanics Conference, pp. 811-816.
[136]
Liu, Z. S., Luo, X. Y., Lee, H. P. and Lu, C. (2007). Snoring source identification and snoring noise prediction. Journal of Biomechanics 40(4), pp. 861-870.
[137]
Carter, D. R., Schwab, G. H. and Spengler, D. M. (1980). Tensile fracture of cancellous bone. Acta Orthop Scand 51(5), pp. 733-741.
[138]
Carter, D. R. and Hayes, W. C. (1977). The compressive behavior of bone as a two-phase porous structure. J Bone Joint Surg 59A, pp. 954-962.
[139]
Gautam, P., Valiathan, A. and Adhikari, R. (2007). Stress and displacement patterns in the craniofacial skeleton with rapid maxillary expansion: A finite element method study. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics 132(1), pp. 5.e1-5.e11.
[140]
Zhang, J., Wang, F., Xue, Q., Song, H. and Li, J. (2009). Development of a human neck finite element model. In: Proceedings of 2nd International Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Informatics (BMEI), Tianjin, China, pp. 1-4.
[141]
Willinger, R., Taleb, L. and Kopp, C. M. (1995). Modal and temporal analysis of head mathematical models. Journal of Neurotrauma 12(4), pp. 743-754.
[142]
Zhang, L., Yang, K. H. and King, A. I. (2001). Comparison of brain responses between frontal and lateral impacts by finite element modeling. J Neurotrauma 18(1), pp. 21-30.
[143]
Grellmann, W., Berghaus, A., Haberland, E. J., Jamali, Y., Holweg, K., Reincke, K. and Bierögel, C. (2006). Determination of strength and deformation behavior of human cartilage for the definition of significant parameters. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A 78A(1), pp. 168-174.
[144]
Malhotra, A., Huang, Y., Fogel, R. B., Pillar, G., Edwards, J. K., Kikinis, R., Loring, S. H. and White, D. P. (2002). The male predisposition to pharyngeal collapse: the importance of airway length. American Journal of Research Critical Care and Medicine 166, pp. 1388-1395.
[145]
Payan, Y., Bettega, G. and Raphael, B. (1998). A biomechanical model of the human tongue and its clinical implication. In: MICCAI’98, LNCS 1496. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. pp. 688-695.
[146]
Widera, G. E. O., Tesk, J. A. and Privitzer, E. (1976). Interaction effects among cortical bone, cancellous bone, and periodontal membrane of natural teeth and implants. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research 10(4), pp. 613-623.
[147]
Magalhães, M. F. d., Ferreira, R. A. N., Grossi, P. A. and Andrade, R. M. d. (2008). Measurement of thermophysical properties of human dentin: Effect of open porosity. Journal of Dentistry 36(8), pp. 588-594.
[148]
Pithioux, M., Subit, D. and Chabrand, P. (2004). Comparison of compact bone failure under two different loading rates: experimental and modelling approaches. Med Eng Phys 26(8), pp. 647-653.
[149]
Kopperdahl, D. L. and Keaveny, T. M. (1998). Yield strain behavior of trabecular bone. Journal of Biomechanics 31(7), pp. 601-608.
[150]
Kleiven, S. and von Holst, H. (2002). Consequences of head size following trauma to the human head. Journal of Biomechanics 35(2), pp. 153-160.
[151]
Donnelly, B. R. and Medige, J. (1997). Shear properties of human brain tissue. J Biomech Eng 119(4), pp. 423-432.
[152]
Ruan, J. S., Khalil, T. and King, A. I. (1991). Human head dynamic response to side impact by finite element modeling. J Biomech Eng 113(3), pp. 276-283.
[153]
Stalnaker, R. L. (1969). Mechanical properties of the head. PhD Dissertation. Morgantown: West Virginia University.
[154]
Shuck, L. Z. and Advani, S. H. (1972). Rheological response of human brain tissue in shearing. J. Basic Eng 94, pp. 905-911.
[155]
Yoganandan, N., Li, J., Zhang, J. and Pintar, F. A. (2009). Role of falx on brain stress-strain responses. In: Kamkim, A. and Kiseleva, I. (Eds.) Mechanosensitivity of the Nervous System. pp. 281-297: Springer Netherlands.
[156]
Al-Bsharat, A. S. (2000). Computational analysis of brain injury. PhD Dissertation. Detroit: Wayne State University.
[157]
Zhou, C., Khalil, T. B. and King, A. (1996). Viscoelastic response of the human brain to sagittal and lateral rotational acceleration by finite element analysis. In: Proceedings of International IRCOBI Conference on the Biomechanics of Impacts, pp. 35-48.
[158]
Horgan, T. J. and Gilchrist, M. D. (2004). Influence of FE model variability in predicting brain motion and intracranial pressure changes in head impact simulations. International Journal of Crashworthiness 9(4), pp. 401-408.
[159]
Kleiven, S. (2006). Evaluation of head injury criteria using a finite element model validated against experiments on localized brain motion, intracerebral acceleration, and intracranial pressure. International Journal of Crashworthiness 11(1), pp. 65-79.
[160]
Gao, C. (2007). Finite element modelling of the human brain and application in neurosurgical procedures. PhD Dissertation. Singapore: National University of Singapore.
[161]
Lin, S., Shieh, S. and Grimm, M. (1997). Ultrasonic meansurements of brain tissue properties. In: Proceedings of 7th Injury Prevention through Biomechanics Syposium, Wayne State University, Centers for Disease Control, pp. 27-31.
[162]
Clatz, O., Delingette, H., Talos, I. F., Golby, A. J., Kikinis, R., Jolesz, F. A., Ayache, N. and Warfield, S. K. (2005). Robust nonrigid registration to capture brain shift from intraoperative MRI. IEEE Trans Med Imaging 24(11), pp. 1417-1427.
[163]
Pudenz, R. H. and Shelden, C. H. (1946). The lucite calvarium; a method for direct observation of the brain; cranial trauma and brain movement. J Neurosurg 3(6), pp. 487-505.
[164]
Ruan, J. S., Khalil, T. B. and King, A. I. (1997). Impact head injury analysis using an explicit finite element human head model. J. Traffic Medicine 25, pp. 33-40.
[165]
Willinger, R., Taled, L. and Pradore, P. (1995). Head biomechanics: from the finite element model to the physical model. In: Proceedings of International IRCOBI Conference on the Biomechanics of Impacts, Brunnen, Switzerland, pp. 245-260.
[166]
Bandak, F. A. and Eppinger, R. H. (1994). A three-dimensional FE analysis of the humanbrain under combined rotational and translational accelerations. In: Proceedings of 38th Stapp Car Crash Conference, Fort Lauderdale, USA, pp. 145-163: Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE), SAE Paper No. 942215.
[167]
DiMasi, F., Eppinger, R. H., Gabler, H. C. and Marcus, J. H. (1991). Simulated head impacts with upper interior structures using rigid and anatomic brain models. Auto and Traffic Safety 1(1), pp. 20-31.
[168]
Claessens, M., Sauren, F. and Wismans, J. (1997). Modeling of the human head under impact conditions: a parametric study. In: Proceedings of 41st Stapp Car Crash Conference, Lake Buena Vista, USA, pp. 315-328: Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE), SAE Paper No. 973338.
[169]
King, A. I., Hardy, W. N., Mason, M. J. and Tashman, S. (2002). Comparison of relative motion between the brain and skull of the human cadaver for rotation in the coronal and sagittal planes. In: Proceedings of 4th World Congress of Biomechanics, Calgary, Canada.
[170]
Zhang, L. (2001). Computational biomechanics of traumatic brain injury: An investigation of head impact response and American football head injury. PhD Dissertation. Detroit: Wayne State University.
[171]
Bradshaw, D. R. S. and Morfey, C. L. (2001). Pressure and shear responses in brain injury models. In: 17th International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: US Department of Transportation: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.
[172]
Hardy, W. N., Mason, M. J., Foster, C. D., Shah, C. S., Kopacz, J. M., Yang, K. H., King, A. I., Bishop, J., Bey, M., Anderst, W. and Tashman, S. (2007). A study of the response of the human cadaver head to impact. Stapp Car Crash J 51, pp. 17-80.
[173]
Kleiven, S. (2007). A parametric study of energy absorbing foams for head injury prevention. In: The 20th International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles Conference (ESV). Lyon, France.
[174]
Nahum, A. M. and Smith, R. (1976). An experimental model for closed head impact injury. In: Proceedings of 20th Stapp Car Crash Conference, San Diego, USA, pp. 2638–2651: Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE), SAE Paper No. 760825.
[175]
Hardy, W. N. (2007). Response of the Human Cadaver Head to Impact. PhD Dissertation. Detroit, Michigan: Wayne State University.
Open Science Scholarly Journals
Open Science is a peer-reviewed platform, the journals of which cover a wide range of academic disciplines and serve the world's research and scholarly communities. Upon acceptance, Open Science Journals will be immediately and permanently free for everyone to read and download.
CONTACT US
Office Address:
228 Park Ave., S#45956, New York, NY 10003
Phone: +(001)(347)535 0661
E-mail:
LET'S GET IN TOUCH
Name
E-mail
Subject
Message
SEND MASSAGE
Copyright © 2013-, Open Science Publishers - All Rights Reserved