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Some Engineering Properties of Palm Nuts, Kernel Shell, Fibre and Woods for Effective Mill Equipment Design
Current Issue
Volume 7, 2019
Issue 1 (March)
Pages: 1-7   |   Vol. 7, No. 1, March 2019   |   Follow on         
Paper in PDF Downloads: 23   Since Mar. 20, 2019 Views: 876   Since Mar. 20, 2019
Authors
[1]
Morakinyo Tunde Afolabi, Department of Food Science & Technology, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria.
[2]
Bamgboye Adeleke Isaac, Department of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.
Abstract
Some engineering properties of Dura palm nut (DPN), Dura palm kernel shell (DPKS) and Dura palm nut fibre (DPNF) and Tenera palm nut (TPN), Tenera palm kernel shell (DPKS) and Tenera palm kernel fibre (TPKF), and woods such as: Dongoyaro (N3), Omo-wood (N4) and Araba (N7) were considered in this study. The mechanical, physical and thermal properties of these biomass materials were measured using calibrated universal testing machine (Instron Testometric AX, M 500-25) and bomb calorimeter (e2k). Maximum deflection, hardness value, energy at breaking point and young modulus were: 9.62, 2.76 and 26.18 mm; 2,707.28, 3,156.00 and 15,383.14 N; 2.80, 1.65 and 7.29 Nm; 39,622.60, 23,810.44 and 65,199.60 N/mm2 for palm nuts, kernel shells and fibre of Dura cultivars, respectively. The values for Tenera cultivars were: 7.82, 2.15 and 25.88 mm; 2,179.70, 1,368.30 and 12,383.40 N; 2.56, 1.37 and 6.50 mm; 34,025.00, 18,832.89 and 59,255.40 N/mm2, for palm nuts, kernel shells and fibre respectively. The moisture contents of kernel shell and fibre were 9.98 and 11.99%; 10.78 and 11.91%, while that of the true densities were: 529.00 and 183.00 kg/m3 and 409.00 and 169.99 kg/m2 for Dura and Tenera cultivars respectively. Heat contents of biomass were: 18.37, 19.23, 20.66, 21.53, 32.99, 17.81 and 16.41 MJ/kg for TPKS, DPKS, TPNF, DPNF, N3, N4 and N7 respectively. DPNF has highest hardness value likewise N3 in terms of heat content. Data were provided for the appropriate heat treatment of the screw shaft against incessant abrasion and to regulate the loading rate of biomass as fuel for the boiler operation.
Keywords
Biomass Materials, Maximum Deflection, Hardness Value, Energy at Breaking Point, Heat Content and True Density
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