Welcome to Open Science
Contact Us
Home Books Journals Submission Open Science Join Us News
Some Engineering Properties of Palm Nuts, Kernel Shell, Fibre and Woods for Effective Mill Equipment Design
Current Issue
Volume 7, 2019
Issue 1 (March)
Pages: 1-7   |   Vol. 7, No. 1, March 2019   |   Follow on         
Paper in PDF Downloads: 23   Since Mar. 20, 2019 Views: 876   Since Mar. 20, 2019
Morakinyo Tunde Afolabi, Department of Food Science & Technology, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria.
Bamgboye Adeleke Isaac, Department of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.
Some engineering properties of Dura palm nut (DPN), Dura palm kernel shell (DPKS) and Dura palm nut fibre (DPNF) and Tenera palm nut (TPN), Tenera palm kernel shell (DPKS) and Tenera palm kernel fibre (TPKF), and woods such as: Dongoyaro (N3), Omo-wood (N4) and Araba (N7) were considered in this study. The mechanical, physical and thermal properties of these biomass materials were measured using calibrated universal testing machine (Instron Testometric AX, M 500-25) and bomb calorimeter (e2k). Maximum deflection, hardness value, energy at breaking point and young modulus were: 9.62, 2.76 and 26.18 mm; 2,707.28, 3,156.00 and 15,383.14 N; 2.80, 1.65 and 7.29 Nm; 39,622.60, 23,810.44 and 65,199.60 N/mm2 for palm nuts, kernel shells and fibre of Dura cultivars, respectively. The values for Tenera cultivars were: 7.82, 2.15 and 25.88 mm; 2,179.70, 1,368.30 and 12,383.40 N; 2.56, 1.37 and 6.50 mm; 34,025.00, 18,832.89 and 59,255.40 N/mm2, for palm nuts, kernel shells and fibre respectively. The moisture contents of kernel shell and fibre were 9.98 and 11.99%; 10.78 and 11.91%, while that of the true densities were: 529.00 and 183.00 kg/m3 and 409.00 and 169.99 kg/m2 for Dura and Tenera cultivars respectively. Heat contents of biomass were: 18.37, 19.23, 20.66, 21.53, 32.99, 17.81 and 16.41 MJ/kg for TPKS, DPKS, TPNF, DPNF, N3, N4 and N7 respectively. DPNF has highest hardness value likewise N3 in terms of heat content. Data were provided for the appropriate heat treatment of the screw shaft against incessant abrasion and to regulate the loading rate of biomass as fuel for the boiler operation.
Biomass Materials, Maximum Deflection, Hardness Value, Energy at Breaking Point, Heat Content and True Density
Morakinyo T. A. Atanda E. O. and Bamgboye I. A. The Significance of Imported Farm Machinery for Effective Field Operations in Nigeria, 37th AGM and Annual Conference of Nigerian Institution of Agricultural Engineers (NIAE, Minna 2016). 2016; Pp: 302-309.
Bamgboye, A. I and Morakinyo, T. A. Modification of Twin-cam Screw-press. Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Applied Sciences (JETEAS).2012; 3 (5): 786-790.
Adesanya, B. A. Methods of Increasing Palm– Oil Extraction Rate Using Twin – Cam ScrewPress. Unpublished paper Presented 10th Annual Conferences of The Nigeria Institute for Oil Palm Research, Benin; 2001.
Karaj S and Muller J. Determination of Physical, Mechanical and Chemical Properties of Seeds and Kernels of Jatropha Curcas L. Industrial Crops Products. Dio: 10.1016/j.indcrop.2010.04.001; 2010.
Makkar H. P. S., Becker K and Schmook B. Edible provenances of Jatropha curcas from Quintana Roo state of Mexico and effect of roasting on antinutrient andtoxic factors in seeds. Plant Foods Human Nutrition. 1998; 52, 31-36.
Garnayak D. K., Pradhan R. C., Naik S. N and Bhatnagar N. Moisture-dependent physical properties of jatropha seed (Jatropha curcas L.). Industrial. Crops Products. 2008; 27, 123-129.
Owolarafe O. K., Olabige M. T. and Faborode M. O. (2005) Physical and Mechanical Properties of Two Varieties of Fresh Oil Palm Fruit. Journal of Food Engineering, 2007; 78: 1228-1232.
Morakinyo T. A and Bamgboye A. I. Effects of Age on Some Physical Properties of Oil Palm Fruitlets. International Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research (CIGR). 2015; 17 (3): 342-352.
Elzaki O. T and Khider T. O. Physical and Mechanical Properties of Cupressus lustanica as a Potential Timber Tress for Sudan. Journal of Forest Products and Industries. 2013; 2 (1): 43-46.
Goyal R. K. Kingsley A. R. P, Kumar Pradeed and Himanshin Walia. Physical and Mechanical properties of Aonla Fruits, Journal of Food Engineering, 2007; 82, 592 – 599.
Mohsenin N. N. Physical Properties of Plant and Animal Materials. Gordon and Breach Press, New York, USA. 1986.
Olufemi B and Malami A. Density and Bending Strenght Characteristics of North Western Nigerian Grown. Eucalyptus camaldulensis in Relation to Utilization as Timber. Research Journal of Forestry. DIO: 10.3928/rjf, 2011.
Nasrin A. B. Choo Y. M. Lim W. S Joseph L. Michael S. Rohaya M. H. Astimar A. A and Loh S. K Briquetting of Empty Fruit Bunch FDibre and Palm Shell as a Renewable Energy Fuel. Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences. 2011; 6 (6): 446-451.
Vijaya S. Chow M. C. and Ma A. N. Energy database of the oil palm MPOB Palm Oil Eng. Bull. 2004; 70: 15-22.
Olufayo A. A. Combustion-Related Characteristics of Some By-products of Agricultural Processing industries. Biomass. 1989; 18 (1): 69-72.
Pansamut, V., Pongrit, V., Intarangsi, C. The oil palm. Department of Alternative Energy Development and Efficiency. Ministry of Energy, Thailand. 2003.
Adewumi I. K and Ogedengbe M. O. Optimizing Conditions for Activated Charcoal Production from Palm Kernel Shells. Journal of Applied Sciences, 2005; 5 (1): 1082-1087.
Bridgwater A. V, Meier D and Radlein D. An overview of Fast Pyrolysis of Biomass. Organic Geo Chemistry, 1999; 30 (1): 1479-1493.
Open Science Scholarly Journals
Open Science is a peer-reviewed platform, the journals of which cover a wide range of academic disciplines and serve the world's research and scholarly communities. Upon acceptance, Open Science Journals will be immediately and permanently free for everyone to read and download.
Office Address:
228 Park Ave., S#45956, New York, NY 10003
Phone: +(001)(347)535 0661
Copyright © 2013-, Open Science Publishers - All Rights Reserved