Welcome to Open Science
Contact Us
Home Books Journals Submission Open Science Join Us News
Grass Fire: Outbreak of the Social Protest, Its Operation Style and the Results Observed in the Short Term
Current Issue
Volume 1, 2013
Issue 1 (December)
Pages: 1-12   |   Vol. 1, No. 1, December 2013   |   Follow on         
Paper in PDF Downloads: 25   Since Aug. 28, 2015 Views: 1719   Since Aug. 28, 2015
Yair Amram, Ashkelon Academic College and Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel.
In recent years we have witnessed outbreaks of social protests in the Middle East. A social justice protest of the middle class began in Tel Aviv in the summer of 2011, marked by a style and strategy of nonviolence. The protest grew and came to involve a socioeconomically weaker population. Another significant social protest in Israel occurred in 1971, in Jerusalem, led by the Israeli Black Panther group, who protested social deprivation. Both social protests were fueled by an outcry for social justice; both gained the public’s attention, as well as a response from the government. In this article, I will compare different dimensions of these two protest cycles using the methodology of Historical Comparative Analysis. I found that both protests were able to raise public awareness of the issues and their agenda for change. I further found that the Black Panther protest created significant change in social policy that lasted approximately twenty years. On the other hand, the 2011 social justice protest did not gain significant results in welfare policy in the short term.
Protest, Social Protest, Social Justice, Social Change, Welfare Policy, Social Movements, Social Deprivation
Aharoni, A. (2011, August 2). Government requirements document: Reducing tax and free education. Reshet, Retrieved from http://reshet.tv. (in Hebrew).
Alimi, A. (2008). Call a spade a spade: The differences (and similarities) between social movements and interest groups. In: V. Shifer & M. Yakobi-Horuvitz, (Eds.), Civil society and third gender in Israel. (Vol. 2, pp. 29-52). Tel aviv: Pardes. (in Hebrew).
Alinsky, S.D. (1971). Rules of Radicals. New York, NY: Vantage Books.
Amenta, E. (2003). What We Know about the Development of Social Policy: Comparative and Historical Research in Comparative and Historical Perspective. In J. Mahoney & D. Rueschemeyer (Eds.), Historical Analysis in the Social Sciences (pp. 91-130). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Amram, A. (2011, 31 July). Confrontations and arrests at the end of the demonstration in Tel Aviv. News 2 Network. Retrieved from http://reshet.tv/ (in Hebrew).
Amram, A. et al. (2011,July 30). 150 000 participated in the largest social protest in Israel's history. News 2 Network. Retrieved from http://reshet.tv/ (in Hebrew).
Arlozorov, M.( 2012, January 24). Fisher opposed to tax rich – Steinitz dismissed the legislation. TheMarker. Retrieved from http://www.themarker.com/markets/1. (in Hebrew).
Arlozorov, M & Besok, M.( 2011, December 7). Instead of "tax the rich": Treasury is considering imposing a tax on luxury goods. Tax will perish, recommended by the Trajtenberg Committee, was canceled at the last minute and created a lack of NIS 400 million in revenues planned. The Marker . http://www.themarker.com/news/1. (in Hebrew).
Avizohar, M. (1994). The prime minister's commission for children and youth 1971-1973. In M. Avizohar, (Ed.), Golda Meir – The emergence of a leader. Tel Aviv: Am-Oved Publisher and Golda Meir Institute of Labor and Social Studies. (pp. 377-389.) (in Hebrew).
Bernstein, D. (1979). Black Panthers: Conflict and Protest in Israeli Society. Megamot, 25 (2). 65-80. (in Hebrew).
Biddix, J.P., & Park, H. W. (2008.( Online networks of student protest: The case of the living wage campaign. New Media and Society, 10 (6), 109-128.
Burstein, P., Einwohner, R, L.and J. A. Hollander. )1995). The success of political movements: A bargaining perspective. In J. C. Jenkins & B. Klandermans (Eds.), The politics of social protest: comparative perspectives on states and social movements (pp. 275-295). Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.
Cohen, B. (1971). Black panthers and social workers, Welfare 15 (4), 48-50. (in Hebrew).
Cohen, N. & Mizrahi, S. (2011). Fifteen years of health policy in Israel in view of legislation: Neo-institutional analysis of the National Health Insurance Act and changes therein (1994-2009). Social Security 87, 65-103. (in Hebrew).
Cnaan, R. (1988). Deliberate use of conflict in community work. Social and Welfare 8 (4), 351-369. (in Hebrew).
Coleman, G. (1990). Foundations of social theory. Cambridge, MA: Belknap.
Crossley, N. (2002) Making sense of social movements, Buckingham, UK: Open University Press.
Dahan-Kalev, H. (1991). Self-organizing systems: Wadi Salib and the black panthers - implications for the system in Israel. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Hebrew University, Jerusalem. (in Hebrew)
Dahan-Kalev, H. (2006). Protest. In A. Ram, & N. Berkovitz, Inequality (pp.242-249). Beer Sheva: Ben Gurion University of the Negev Press. (in Hebrew)
Deri, D. (1992). Political protest and political innovation - Housing problem protest in Jerusalem. Jerusalem: Jerusalem Institute for Israel Studies. (in Hebrew)
Doron, A. (1987). Welfare state era of transition. Jerusalem: The Hebrew University Magnes Press. (in Hebrew)
Doron, A. (2005). Minimum income threshold for income support system in Israel: Developments in the past and a look to the future. Social and welfare 25 (4), 443-460. (in Hebrew).
Doron, A. (2007). Design of welfare policy in Israel, 2000-2005. In A. Aviram, J. Gal, & Y. Katan (Eds.), Social policy in Israel: trends and issues (pp. 33-57). Jerusalem: Taub Center for Social Policy Studies in Israel. (in Hebrew).
Flug, K. (2003). Work and welfare policy: What has changed? Jerusalem: Research Department of the Bank of Israel. Retrieved from www.bankisrael.gov.il/deptdata/. (in Hebrew).
Gamson, A. W. (1990). The Strategy of Social Protest (2nd ed). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Gamson, A. W. (1995). Constructing social protest.. In H. Johnston, & B. Klandermans (Eds.), Social movements and culture. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.
Gandhi, M. K. (2011). Civil disobedience as a natural right. In Y. Winstain (Ed.), Disobedience and democracy (pp 115-122). Jerusalem: Shalem.. (in Hebrew) .
Gillan, K. & Pickerill, J. (2012). The difficult and hopeful ethics of research on, and with, social movements. Social Movement Studies: Journal of Social, Cultural and Political Protest 11 (2), 133-143.
Giugni, M. (2008) Political, biographical, and cultural consequences of social movements. Sociology Compass 2 (5), 1582-1600.
Goldstone, J. A. (1980). The weakness of organization: A new look at Gamson's “The strategy of social protest.” American Journal of Sociology 85 (5), 1017-1042.
Greenstein, Y. (January 18, 2011). Within a decade: Israel's housing prices jumped by 70%. . Ma'ariv NRG Retrieved from http://www.nrg.co.il/online/16. (in Hebrew).
Guillotine erected near protest tent on Rothschild Boulevard in Tel Aviv. (2011, August 11). Channel Two News. Retrieved from http://www.mako.co.il/news-specials/social-protest/Article- (in Hebrew).
Hason, R. (2011,August 10). Shmolly: "The students do not take violence, do not believe the media." Mako..Retrieved from http://www.mako.co.il/news-israel/local/Article. (in Hebrew)
Hartman, B. 2011)a). (2001, September 27,) Social movement leaders threaten massive October protest. Jerusalem Post. Retrieved from http://www.jpost.com/DiplomacyAndPolitics/Article.
Hartman, B. (2011b). (2011, November 11). Harvard profs: Social-protest movement needs clear demands. Jerusalem Post,Retrieved from http://www.jpost.com/NationalNews/Article.
Hofnung, M. (2006). Protest and butter: The impact of the black panther demonstrations on social and welfare budgets. Jerusalem: Nevo Publishing Limited. (in Hebrew).
Holler, R. & Gal, J. (2011). Preschool frames subsidies: Israel from an international perspective compared. Social Security 87, 37-63. (in Hebrew).
Inbar, L. & Wasserstein, S. (2007). The process of determining earning capacity of people with disabilities: An international comparison and conclusions. Discussion Paper No. 16, National Insurance Institute. [Electronic version], Retrieved February 2012 from http://www.btl.gov.il/. (in Hebrew).
Iris, M. (1978). System in Crisis: American and Israeli responses to urban ethnic protest. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Northwestern University, Chicago.
Israel Purchasing and Logistics Managers Association (2012, March 4). Because of the rising cost of diesel fuel: It is inevitable to hike freight charges and transportation in Israel. Retrieved from http://www.iplma.org.il. (in Hebrew).
Jenkins, J.C. (1983). Resource mobilization theory and the study of social movements. Annual Review of Sociology 9, 527-553.
Jenkins, J.C. (2005). Social movements, political representation and the state: An agenda and comparative framework. In Jenkins, J.C. & Klandermans, B. (Eds.), The politics of social protest (7-17). Retrieved from Taylor & Francis e-Library.
Jenkins, J. C. and Klandermans, B. (1995). Introduction: The politics of social protest. InJ. C. Jenkins, & B. Klandermans, (Eds.), The politics of social protest: Comparative perspectives on states and social movements (pp. 3-13). Minneapolis, MN: U of Minnesota Press..
Katan, Y. (1996). Government spending on personal welfare services. In Katan, Y. (ed.), Personal social services, trends and developments (pp. 13-55). Tel Aviv: Ramot, Tel Aviv University. (in Hebrew).
Kempinski, Y. (2012, January 16 ). Six months tents. Sushi, hookahs and 3 tents. Channel 7. Retrieved from http://www.inn.co.il/News/News.aspx/231905. (in Hebrew).
King, M. L. (2001). Letter from the Birmingham city jail. In J. Weinstein (ed.). Disobedience and democracy (pp.125-144). Jerusalem: Shalem. (in Hebrew).
Lahav, A. (2011, August 8). Meet Prof. Trachtenberg, PM's response to protests. Ynet. Retrieved from http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-4105553,00.html
Lev, T. & Shenhav, Y. (2010). The formation of an enemy from inside: The black panthers as objects of moral panic. Israel Sociology 12 (1), 135-158. (in Hebrew).
Levy, J. (2012, January 29). Social protest? Tel Aviv rent jumped by 15%. Mako,Retrieved from http://www.mako.co.il/news-money/consumer/Article- (in Hebrew).
Likud attack: "pipsqueak should not tell Bibi go home” (2011, August 2). Globes. Retrieved from http://www.globes.co.il/news/article. (in Hebrew).
Linders, A. (2004). Victory and beyond: A historical comparative analysis of the outcomes of the abortion movements in Sweden and the United States. Sociological Forum 19 (3), 371-404.
Lyman-Wiltzig, H. (1992). Public Protest in Israel from 1942 to 1949. Ramat Gan: Bar Ilan University Press. (in Hebrew).
Mahoney, J., & Rueschemeyer, D. (2003). Introduction. In J. Mahoney & D. Rueschemeyer (Eds.),. Historical analysis in the social sciences (pp. 3-40). New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003.
Nahmani, B. (2011, October 3). Tel Aviv municipal inspectors and police cleared the encampment at Lewinsky. Ma'ariv NRG. Retrieved from http://www.nrg.co.il/online/1/. (in Hebrew).
Nahmias, P. (2011, August 3). Just before the break: National Housing Committees Law was approved by a majority of 57 against 45. Nana 10. Retrieved from Http://news.nana10.co.il/Article. (in Hebrew).
Netzley, D. P. (1999). Social protest literature (An encyclopedia of works, characters, authors and themes). CA: Abc-clio.
Neuman, W. L. (2011). Social research methods: Quantitative and qualitative approaches (7th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
Ochion, S. (2011, August 2). Do not replace Daphne Leef. Haoketz. Retrieved from http://www.haokets.org/. (in Hebrew).
Ozeri, R. (2011, November 27). Assessments: the fear decline in housing prices would precipitate interest rate cuts. The Marker, Retrieved from http://www.themarker.com/markets/1. (in Hebrew).
Patai, R. (1970). Israel between east and west. Westport, CT: Greenwood.
Piven, F. F., & Cloward, A. R. (1977). Poor people's movements: Why they Succeed, how they fail. New York, NY: Pantheon Books.
Paylor, B. (2011, October 2). The inspectors arrived at the avenue: the last day of the encampment. Calcalist. Retrieved from http://www.calcalist.co.il/local/articles. (in Hebrew).
Polletta, F. (1998). "It was like a fever": Narrative and identity in social protest. Social problems 45 (2), 137-159.
Qyen, E. (2004). Living with imperfect comparisons. In P. Kennett (Ed.) A handbook of comparative social policy (pp. 276-291). MA: Esward Elgar.
Rotter, R. (1973). Reform of child allowances in Israel. Social Security 4-5, 70-73. (in Hebrew).
Segal, A. ( 2011, August 8). "Vision of social justice": List the requirements of the protest leaders. Mako. Retrieved from http://www.mako.co.il/news-specials/social-protest/Article. (in Hebrew).
Shaykhutdinov, R. (2011). Education for Peace: Protest strategies of ethnic resistance movements. Journal of Peace Education 8 (2) , 143-155.
Shemesh, K.(2011, November 12). Black panthers and social workers. Mysay. Retrieved from http://www.mysay.co.il/articles/ShowArticle.aspx?article. (in Hebrew).
Shemesh, K 2012, November 11). Molotov cocktails flying through the skies of the capital. Mysay. Retrieved from http://www.mysay.co.il/articles/ShowArticle.aspx?articlePI. (in Hebrew).
Slipher, J. (1973). New approaches to public housing. Social Security 4-5, 19-22. (in Hebrew).
Spicker, P. (2006). Policy analysis for practice. Bristol: Policy Press.
Swank, E. (2006). Welfare reform and the power of protest: Quantitative tests of Piven and Cloward's "turmoil-relief" hypothesis.
In M. K. Kilty & E. A. Segal (Eds.), The promise of welfare reform (Political rhetoric and the reality of poverty in the twenty-first century) (pp, 287-299). N.Y. : Routledge.
Tarrow, S. (1989). Democracy and disorder, protest and Politics in Italy 1965-1975 - New York: Oxford University Press
Tarrow, S. (1998). Power in movement (2nd ed.). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Tilly, L. (2001) History of Social protest,. In International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences (pp.14397-14402) U.S.A.: Elsevier, 2001. Original from, the University of Michigan.
Trajtenberg, M. (2011). Public participation, the commission for social and economic change. [Electronic version], Retrieved February 2012 from http://hidavrut.gov.il. (in Hebrew).
Trudy, G. (2008). Violence, nonviolence, and definitions: A dilemma for peace studies. Peace Research 40 (2), 61-83.
Turczyner, J. (1972). The political context of social change: A case study of innovation in adversity in Jerusalem. Journal of Applied Behavioral Studies 8, 287-317.
Wolf, P. ( 2011, August 1). Chairman of the Knesset on the protest: "recognize signs of anarchy." Walla. Retrieved from http://news.walla.co.il. (in Hebrew).
Zuckerman- Bareli, H., & Benski, T. (1989). Parents against silence: conditions and processes leading to the growth of the protest movement. Trends 22 (1), 27-42. (in Hebrew).
Open Science Scholarly Journals
Open Science is a peer-reviewed platform, the journals of which cover a wide range of academic disciplines and serve the world's research and scholarly communities. Upon acceptance, Open Science Journals will be immediately and permanently free for everyone to read and download.
Office Address:
228 Park Ave., S#45956, New York, NY 10003
Phone: +(001)(347)535 0661
Copyright © 2013-, Open Science Publishers - All Rights Reserved