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The Decline of Woodfuel and the Rise of Modern Fuels: A Case Study from Nigerian Metropolis
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Volume 5, 2017
Issue 3 (June)
Pages: 20-25   |   Vol. 5, No. 3, June 2017   |   Follow on         
Paper in PDF Downloads: 29   Since Aug. 17, 2017 Views: 1113   Since Aug. 17, 2017
Abdul-Hakim Ibrahim Kiyawa, Department of Environmental Management, Bayero University Kano, Kano, Nigeria.
Murtala Uba Mohammed, Department of Geography, Bayero University Kano, Kano, Nigeria.
Kano Metropolis is the second largest, and among the fastest growing cities in Nigeria, with an estimated population of 3.5 million, and a population density of about 1000 inhabitants per km². The metropolis, has been associated with the use of woodfuel as the main household energy, accounting for about 70% in 1987. Over the years, the metropolis has experienced increasing levels of formal education, rapid urbanization, increased availability of modern fuels, and expansion of commercial activities, earning the name ‘commercial city’ of the country. These factors may significantly affect the choice of household energy. This study examines the choice of household cooking energy in the year 2014, focusing on the use of woodfuel and other modern sources. To achieve the aim, a clustered sampling technique was adopted and the study area was categorized into different residential zones on the basis socio-economic status. Thereafter, a systematic sampling technique was used to select households at specific intervals. 528 sampled households were sampled for the questionnaire administration. The result revealed that, kerosene and LPG have now replaced woodfuel as the dominant household energy, accounting for 33% and 29% respectively, while woodfuel accounts for 26.3%. Safety and availability/proximity were found to be the major factors influencing the choice of kerosene, while efficiency was the major factor influencing the choice of LPG. The outcome of the study reveals that increase in education and availability of modern fuels are believed to have played a significant role in the changing pattern of household energy consumption. This is because increase in education implies higher income as well as higher status in the society, in addition to increased awareness on the dangers of using woodfuel for cooking. Also, availability of kerosene and LPG contributes to the switch. The study concluded that despite a significant change in the choice of household energy over the years, the current economic challenges faced by the country are forcing many households in the study area to descend the energy ladder.
Household, Energy, Kano Metropolis, Woodfuel, Kerosene, LPG
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