Welcome to Open Science
Contact Us
Home Books Journals Submission Open Science Join Us News
Latina/o Assertiveness: Strategy and Other Cultural Constructs
Current Issue
Volume 2, 2015
Issue 3 (June)
Pages: 84-91   |   Vol. 2, No. 3, June 2015   |   Follow on         
Paper in PDF Downloads: 44   Since Aug. 28, 2015 Views: 1366   Since Aug. 28, 2015
C. Albert Bardi, Department of Psychology, Sewanee: The University of the South, Sewanee, USA.
Sarah W. Clark, Department of Psychology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, USA.
Extant measures of assertiveness were developed with dominant cultural constructs and thus may not be applicable to non-dominant groups such as U.S. Latina/os. This study employed a qualitative method to gather U.S. Latina/o conceptions of assertiveness-related constructs such as assertiveness, aggressiveness, passive-aggressiveness and a new construct, strategic assertion. Focus group data were transcribed and analyzed for emergent themes using a grounded theory approach. Four themes emerged, including: Assertiveness as a product of immigrant struggle, acceptance of authority figures, the ideal of strategic assertion, and cultural misunderstanding of expressiveness. The themes are discussed in light of future research including scale item development and service provision.
Assertiveness, Passivity, Strategic Assertiveness, Latina/o, Hispanic, Qualitative Research, Culture
Barona, A. & Santos de Barona, M. (2003). Recommendations for the psychological treatment of Latino/Hispanic populations. In Council of National Psychological Associations for the Advancement of Ethnic Minority Interests, Psychological Treatment of Ethnic Minority Populations. Washington, D.C.: Association of Black Psychologists.
Buss A.H. (1961) The Psychology of Aggression. John Wiley, New York
Bayrami, M. (2011). Effect of assertiveness training on general health in first year students of Tabriz University. Psychological Research, 14(1), 47-64.
Comas-Diaz, L. & Duncan, J. W. (1985). The cultural context: A factor in assertiveness training with mainland Puerto Rican women. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 9, 463-476.
Eisler, R. M., Hersen, M., & Miller, P. M. (1975), Situational determinants of assertive behavior. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 43(3), 330-340
Fray, J. S., & Hector, M. A. (1987). The assertive-aggressive distinction and the cross-cultural perspective. International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling, 10, 103-110.
Galassi, J. P., DeLo, J. S., Galassi, M. D., & Bastien, S., (1974). The college self-expression scale: A measure of assertiveness. Behavior Therapy, 5, 165-171.
Galassi, J. P., Kosta, M. P. & Galassi, M. D. (1975). Assertive training: A one-year follow-up. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 22, 451-452.
Hall, J. R., & Beil-Warner, D. (1978). Assertiveness of male Anglo and Mexican-American college students. The Journal of Social Psychology, 105, 175-178.
Hijazi, A. M., Tavakoli, S., Slavin-Spenny, O. M., & Lumley, M. A. (2011). Targeting interventions: Moderators of the effects of expressive writing and assertiveness training on the adjustment of international university students. International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling, 33(2), 101-112.
Hollandsworth, J. G. (1977). Differentiating assertion and aggression: Some behavioral guidelines. Behavior Therapy, 8, 347-352.
Hotta, M. (2013). Measuring the effectiveness of assertiveness training: An analysis of issues and a proposed model. Japanese Journal of Educational Psychology, 61(4), 412-424.
Jung, J. M. (2014). The effect of an assertiveness training program for adolescents in residential care in South Korea. Asia Pacific Journal of Social Work & Development, 24(4), 285-299
Kagan, S. & Carlson, H. (1975). Development of adaptive assertiveness in Mexican and United States children. Developmental Psychology, 11, 71-78.
Kazdin, A. E. (1974). Effects of covert modeling and model reinforcements on assertive behavior. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 83(4), 240-252.
Lee, T., Chang, S., Chu, H., Yang, C., Ou, K., Chung, M., & Chou, K. (2013). The effects of assertiveness training in patients with schizophrenia: A randomized, single‐blind, controlled study. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 69(11), 2549-2559.
Linehand, M. M., Goldfried, M. R. & Goldfried, A. P. (1979). Assertion therapy: Skill training or cognitive restructuring. Behavior Therapy, 3, 372-389.
McIntyre, T. M., Mauger, P. A., Margalit, B., & Figueiredo, E. (1989). The generalizability of aggressiveness and assertiveness factors: A cross-cultural analysis. Personality and Individual Differences, 10(4), 385-89.
Ortiz, F. A., Church, A. T., Vargas-Flores, J., Ibáñez-Reyes, J., Flores-Galaz, M., Iuit-Briceño, J. I., & Escamilla, J. M. (2007). Are indigenous personality dimensions culture-specific? Mexican inventories and the five-factor model. Journal of Research in Personality, 41, 618-649.
Ottaway, S. A., Hayden, D. C., & Oakes, M. A. (2001). Implicit attitudes and racism: Effects of word familiarity and frequency on the implicit association test. Social Cognition, 19(2), 97-144.
Rathus, S. A. (1973). A 30-item schedule for assessing assertive behavior. Behavior Therapy, 4, 398-406.
Rivera, D. P., Forquer, E. E. & Rangel, R. (2010). Micoraggressions and the life Experience of Latina/o Americans. In Sue, D. W. (Ed.), Microaggressions and marginality. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Schwartz, A. L., Galliher, R. V., & Domenech Rodríguez, M. M. (2011). Self-disclosure in Latinos' intercultural and intracultural friendships and acquaintanceships: Links with collectivism, ethnic identity, and acculturation. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 17(1), 116-121.
Seal, D. W., Bogart, L. M., & Ehrhardtm A. A. (1998). Small group dynamics: The utility of focus group discussion as a research method. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 2(4), 253-266.
Shepherd, G. (1983). Introduction. In S. H. Spence and G. Shepherd (Eds.), Developments in social skills training. London: Academic Press.
Smokowski, P., Rose, R. A., & Bacallao, M. (2009). Acculturation and aggression in Latino adolescents: Modeling longitudinal trajectories from the Latino Acculturation and Health Project. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 40(4), 589-608.
Sue, D. W. (2010). Microaggressions in everyday life: Race, gender and sexual orientation. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Sue, D. W., Bucceri, J., Lin, A. I., Nadal, K. L., & Torino, G. C. (2007). Racial microaggressions and the Asian American experience. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 13(1), 72-81.
Tavakoli, S., Lumley, M. A., Hijazi, A. M., Slavin-Spenny, O. M., & Parris, G. P. (2009). Effects of assertiveness training and expressive writing on acculturative stress in international students: A randomized trial. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 56(4), 590-596.
Triandis, H. C., Marín, G., Lisansky, J., & Betancourt, H. (1984). Simpatía as a cultural script of Hispanics. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 47(6), 1363-1375.
U.S. Census Bureau. (2011). The Hispanic population: 2010. Retrieved September 15, 2011 from http://www.census.gov/prod/cen2010/briefs/c2010br-04.pdf
Wolpe, J., & Lazarus, A. A. (1966). Behavior therapy techniques. Pergamon, New York.
Yoshioka, M. (2000). Substantive differences in the assertiveness of low-income African American, Hispanic and Caucasian women. The Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary And Applied, 134(3), 243-259.
Yousef Nejad, S. M. (2012). Impact of assertiveness training and family economic condition on the subscale of Anxiety and Insomnia of Mental Health. Journal of the Indian Academy Of Applied Psychology, 38(2), 287-293.
Vaillant, G. E. (1977). Adaptation to life. Boston: Little, Brown & Co.
Valdez, Z. (2011). Political participation among Latinos in the United States: The effect of group identity and consciousness. Social Science Quarterly, 92, 466-482.
Open Science Scholarly Journals
Open Science is a peer-reviewed platform, the journals of which cover a wide range of academic disciplines and serve the world's research and scholarly communities. Upon acceptance, Open Science Journals will be immediately and permanently free for everyone to read and download.
Office Address:
228 Park Ave., S#45956, New York, NY 10003
Phone: +(001)(347)535 0661
Copyright © 2013-, Open Science Publishers - All Rights Reserved