Welcome to Open Science
Contact Us
Home Books Journals Submission Open Science Join Us News
Perception and Practice of Female Genital Cutting Among Mothers in Ibadan, Nigeria
Current Issue
Volume 4, 2017
Issue 6 (November)
Pages: 71-80   |   Vol. 4, No. 6, November 2017   |   Follow on         
Paper in PDF Downloads: 57   Since Oct. 18, 2017 Views: 1277   Since Oct. 18, 2017
Chizoma Millicent Ndikom, Department of Nursing, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.
Feyintoluwa Anne Ogungbenro, Department of Nursing, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.
Olajumoke Adetoun Ojeleye, Department of Nursing, Lagos State University College of Medicine, Ikeja, Nigeria.
Female Genital Cutting (FGC) is the practice of altering the structure of the female external genitalia and this has the potential of causing of medical complications and harm to reproductive health. This practice has gone on over many years with no proven health and social benefits. Persistent calls have been made for the practice to stop, yet it still continues primarily in Africa and among certain communities in the Middle East and Asia, of which Nigeria is not an exception. This study sought to determine the perception and practice of FGC among mothers in Ibadan, Nigeria. This cross-sectional study used structured, interviewer-administered questionnaire to elicit data on the perception and practice of Female Genital Cutting from the 106 mothers sampled by convenience from three primary health centres in Ibadan North Local Government Area (INLG). The data was coded and analysed using descriptive statistics and chi-square at a 5% (0.05) level of significance. More than half of the respondents (63.2%) had undergone FGC. Almost 19% of the respondents had circumcised their daughters at an average age of 30.8 days, while another 28.3% had plans to do so in future, probably at a later date. The major practitioners of FGC are traditional circumcisers (54.7%). The mothers’ level of education influenced their practice of FGC (p<0.03) and there was also a significant association between having undergone FGM and the experience of dyspareunia (p<0.03). The most expressed benefit of FGC by the mothers is that, it conserves virginity till marriage and the negative effect mostly expressed was infection. More than half of the women declared that, their mother/mother-in-law’s insistence was their reason for performing FGC. Although, the views expressed by the mothers on FGC, including its eradication, were somewhat impressive, this study shows that, FGC is still being practiced and many women are living with its negative effects. There is therefore, the need to intensify and consolidate educative and advocacy efforts to ensure that the practice is completely eradicated.
Experience, Female Genital Cutting, Mothers, Perception, Practice
UNICEF (2016) Child protection from violence, exploitation and abuse: Female genital mutilation/cutting. Retrieved from https://www.unicef.org/protection/57929_58002.html. Accessed 10/04/2016
WHO Study Group on Female Genital Mutilation and Obstetric Outcome (2006). Female genital mutilation and obstetric outcome: WHO collaborative prospective study in six African countries. Lancet, 367:1835-1841. http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736 (06)68805-3/abstract)
American Academy of Paediatrics (2010) Policy Statement—Ritual Genital Cutting of Female Minors Pediatrics 125 (5)2010, 1088-1093 www.pediatrics.org/cgi/doi/10.1542/peds.2010-0187 doi:10.1542/peds.2010-0187
National Population Commission (NPC) and ICF Macro (2013) Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey 2013. Abuja, Nigeria: National Population Commission and ICF Macro.
UNICEF (2010) Global strategy to stop health-care providers from performing female genital mutilation. In Global strategy to stop health-care providers from performing female genital mutilation (pp. 17-17).
Dike, E. I, Ojiyi. E. C, Chukwulebe, A. E, et al (2012). Female genital mutilation: awareness and attitude of nursing and midwifery students in Afikpo, Nigeria. Internet Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics 16 http://archive.ispub.com/journal/the-internet-journal-of-gynecology-and-obstetrics/volume-16-number-3/female-genital-mutilation-awareness-and-attitude-of-nursing-and-midwifery-students-in-afikpo-nigeria. Accessed: 16 December 2013
Smeltzer S. C., Bare B. G., Hinkle J. I., and Cheever K. H. (2010) Brunner and Suddarth’s Textbook of Medical-Surgical Nursing. 12th Ed. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams and Wilkins
Report on Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) or Female Genital Cutting (FGC) Office of the Senior Coordinator for International Women's Issues Online Nigeria: Community Portal of Nigeria. Retrieved from http://www.onlinenigeria.com
World Health Organization. (2011). An update on WHO's work on female genital mutilation (FGM): Progress report.
United Nations (2009). Legislation to Address the Issue of Female Genital Mutilation. Available at: http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/egm/vaw_legislation_2009
Global Alliance against Female Genital Mutilation. International Day of Zero Tolerance to FGM www.global-alliance-fgm.org
Adewale IF, Adewale P. (2009) Trends in female circumcision in African cities: the case of Saki, Oyo State, Nigeria. West African Journal Nursing. 21, 20-21
Dattijo, L. M., Nyango, D. D., & Osagie, O. E. (2010). Awareness, perception and practice of female genital mutilation among expectant mothers in Jos University Teaching Hospital Jos, north-central Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Medicine, 19(3), 311-315
Ahanonu and Victor (2014). Mothers’ perceptions of female genital mutilation. Health Education Research; 29 (4): 683-689. doi: 10.1093/her/cyt118
Garba, I. D., Muhammed, Z., Abubakar, I. S., & Yakasai, I. A. (2012). Prevalence of female genital mutilation among female infants in Kano, Northern Nigeria. Archives of gynecology and obstetrics 286 (2), 423-428.
Ashimi, A. O., & Amole, T. G. (2015). Perception and attitude of pregnant women in a rural community north-west Nigeria to female genital mutilation. Archives of gynecology and obstetrics 291 (3), 695-700.
Biglu, M. H, Farnam, A., Abotalebi, P., Biglu, S., Ghavami, M. (2016) Effect of female genital mutilation/cutting on sexual functions. Sexual and Reproductive Health care.10:3-8. doi: 10.1016/j.srhc.2016.07.002
Tamire, M., Molla, M. (2013) Prevalence and belief in the continuation of female genital cutting among high school girls: a cross - sectional study in Hadiya zone, Southern Ethiopia. BMC Public Health.13:1120. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-13-1120.
Abubakar, I., Iliyasu, Z., Kabir, M., Uzoho, C. C., & Abdulkadir, M. B. (2003). Knowledge, attitude and practice of female genital cutting among antenatal patients in Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano. Nigerian journal of medicine 13 (3), 254-258.
Gebremariam, K., Assefa, D., Weldegebreal, F. (2016) Prevalence and associated factors of female genital cutting among young adult females in Jigjiga district, eastern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional mixed study. Internal Journal of Women’s Health. 9;8:357-65. doi: 10.2147/IJWH. S111091.
Ashimi, A. O., Amole, T. G., Iliyasu, Z. (2015) Prevalence and predictors of female genital mutilation among infants in a semi urban community in northern Nigeria. Sexual and Reproductive Health care. 6 (4):243-8. doi: 10.1016/j.srhc.2015.05.005.
Dehghankhalili, M., Fallahi, S., Mahmudi, F., Ghaffarpasand, F., Shahrzad, M. E., Taghavi, M., Fereydooni, A. M. (2015) Epidemiology, Regional Characteristics, Knowledge, and Attitude toward Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting in Southern Iran. The Journal of Sexual Medicine 12 (7):1577-83. doi: 10.1111/jsm.12938
Shaeer, O., Shaeer, E. (2013) The Global Online Sexuality Survey: public perception of female genital cutting among internet users in the Middle East. The Journal of Sexual Medicine 10(12):2904-2911. doi: 10.1111/jsm.12163.
Kandala, N. B., Nwakeze, N., & Kandala, S. N. I. (2009). Spatial distribution of female genital mutilation in Nigeria. The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene, 81 (5), 784-792.
Pashaei, T., Ponnet, K., Moeeni, M., Khazaee-pool, M., Majlessi, F. (2016). Daughters at Risk of Female Genital Mutilation: Examining the Determinants of Mothers' Intentions to Allow Their Daughters to Undergo Female Genital Mutilation. PLoS One 11 (3):e0151630. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0151630
El-Defrawi, M. H., Lotfy, G., Dandash, K. F., Refaat, A. H., & Eyada, M. (2001). Female genital mutilation and its psychosexual impact. Journal of Sex &Marital Therapy 27 (5), 465-473.
Abdel-Aleem, M. A., Elkady, M. M., Hilmy, Y. A. (2016) The relationship between female genital cutting and sexual problems experienced in the first two months of marriage. International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. 132 (3):305-8. doi: 10.1016/j.ijgo.2015.07.030.
Open Science Scholarly Journals
Open Science is a peer-reviewed platform, the journals of which cover a wide range of academic disciplines and serve the world's research and scholarly communities. Upon acceptance, Open Science Journals will be immediately and permanently free for everyone to read and download.
Office Address:
228 Park Ave., S#45956, New York, NY 10003
Phone: +(001)(347)535 0661
Copyright © 2013-, Open Science Publishers - All Rights Reserved