Welcome to Open Science
Contact Us
Home Books Journals Submission Open Science Join Us News
Temperature Assessment and Accuracy of Different Thermometer Devices in Neonates
Current Issue
Volume 2, 2015
Issue 6 (November)
Pages: 64-69   |   Vol. 2, No. 6, November 2015   |   Follow on         
Paper in PDF Downloads: 82   Since Sep. 23, 2015 Views: 1848   Since Sep. 23, 2015
Efijenia Kotsia, Faculty of Nursing, University of Athens, Athens, Greece.
A. Attilakos, Faculty of Medicine, University of Athens, Athens, Greece.
E. Tsekoura, Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Attikon University Hospital, Athens, Greece.
G. Nyktari, Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Attikon University Hospital, Athens, Greece.
E. Koukia, Faculty of Nursing, University of Athens, Athens, Greece.
K. Tsoumakas, Faculty of Nursing, University of Athens, Athens, Greece.
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate correlations between measurements taken with four different thermometer devices in four different neonatal temperature sites and determine the optimal site of measuring temperature in neonates. Design: Prospective, over an 18 month period. Participants: Four hundred (400) neonates with gestational age 37–42 weeks. Methods: The temperature measurements were performed using mercury-in-glass thermometer, a digital thermometer, a tympanic thermometer and an infrared forehead thermometer. Paired t test, Interclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) and the Bland-Altman plot were used to compute data. Results: The mean temperature of neonates was 36,77±0, 44°C and 36,65±0, 36°C with a mercury-in-thermometer in rectum and axilla respectively, 36,79±0, 46°C and 36, 72±0, 36°C with a digital thermometer in rectum and axilla respectively, 36,63±0, 39°C with the tympanic thermometer and 36,73±0,39°C with the forehead thermometer. The mean difference with the mercury in glass and the digital thermometer was 0.02°C in rectum and 0.07°C in axilla (p<0,001). There was a strong correlation between the measurements with the mercury-in-thermometer and the digital thermometer in rectum and axilla (r=0.93 and 0.9 respectively and p<0,001). Conclusions: The optimal way to measure body temperature in neonates is rectally with a mercury-in-thermometer or digital. Reliable seem to be the axillary measurements using a mercury-in-glass thermometer or digital thermometer.
Digital Thermometer, Mercury-in-Glass Thermometer, Neonates, Temperature Measurements, Thermoregulation
Bailey, J. & Rose, P. (2001). Axillary and Tympanic membrane temperature recording in the preterm neonate: a comparative study. Journal of advanced Nursing, 34 (4), 465-474.
Childs, C., Harrison, R. & Hodkinson, C. (1999). Tympanic membrane temperature as a measure of core temperature. Archives of disease in childhood, 80, 262-266.
De-Curtis, M., Calzolari, F., Marciano, A., Cardilli, V. & Gianvincenzo, B. (2008). Comparison between rectal and infrared skin temperature in the newborn. Archives of disease in childhood, 93, 55-57.
Duran, R., Vatansever, U., Acunas, B. & Sut, S. (2009). Comparison of temporal artery. Mid-forehead and axillary temperature recordings in preterm infants <1500gr of birthweight. Journal of Pediatrics and Child Health, 45(7-8), 444-447.
Duru, C.O., Akinbami, F.O. & Orimadegum, A.E. (2012). A comparison of tympanic and rectal temperatures in term Nigerian neonates. BMC Pediatrics, 12: 86.
El-Radhi, A.S. & Barry W. (2006). Thermometry in paediatric practice. Archives of disease in childhood, 291 (4), 351–356.
Fallis, W.M. & Christiani, P. (1999). Neonatal axillary temperature measurement: a comparison of electronic thermometer predictive and monitor modes. Journal of Obstetric, Gynaecologic and Neonatal Nursing, 28(4), 389-394.
Haddock, B., Merrow, D. & Vincent, P. (1988). Comparisons of axillary and rectal temperatures in the preterm infant. Neonatal network, 6(5), 67-71.
Hicks, M.A. (1996). A comparison of the tympanic and axillary temperatures of preterm and term infants. Journal of Perinatology, 16(4), 261-267.
Hissink Muller, P.C, van Verkel, L.H. & de Beaufort, A.J. (2008). Axillary and rectal temperature measurements poorly agree in newborn infants. Neonatology, 94, 31-34.
Horwitz, M.A. & Bennet, J.V. (1976). Nursery outbreak of peritonitis with pneumoperitoneum probably caused by thermometer induced rectal perforation. American Journal of Epidemiology, 104, 632-644.
Hutton, S., Probst, E., Kenyon, C., Morse, D., Friedman, B., Arnold, K. & Helsley, L. (2009). Accuracy of different temperature devices in the postpartum population. Journal of Obstetric, Gynaecologic and Neonatal Nursing, 38(1), 42–49.
Jirapet, V. & Jirapet, K. (2000). Comparisons of tympanic membrane, abdominal skin, axillary, and rectal temperature measurements in term and preterm neonates. Nursing and Health Sciences, 2(1), 1-9.
Lee, G., Flannery, D., Randall-Rollins, K., Curry, D., Rowe, S., Teague, M., Tuininga, C. & Schroeder, S. (2011). Accuracy of Temporal Artery Thermometry in Neonatal Intensive Care Infants. Advances in Neonatal care, 11(1), 62-70.
Leick-Rude, M.K. & Bloom, L.F. (1998). A comparison of temperature taking methods in neonates. Neonatal Network, 17(5), 21-37.
Martin, S.A. & Kline, A.M. (2004). Can there be a standard for temperature measurement in the Pediatric intensive care unit? AACN Clinical Issues,15 (2), 254-266.
Rekha, S., Lewin, S., Subba Rao, S.D., Theressiamma, C.K. & Chandrasekhara, M.K. (1993). Comparison of rectal and axillary temperatures in neonates admitted to a neonatal unit. Journal of Indian Pediatrics, 30, 37-39.
Robertson, N.R.C. & Rennie, J.M. (2002). Temperature control. Oxford University Press, London, p. 6–17.
Rosenthal, H.M. & Leslie, A. (2006). Measuring temperature of NICU patients-a comparison of three devices. Journal of Neonatal Nursing, 12(4), 125-129.
Smiddy, F.G. & Benson, F.A. (1969). Rectal perforation by thermometer. Lancet, 2, 1262-1264.
Smith, J. (1998). Are electronic thermometry techniques suitable alternatives to traditional mercury in glass thermometry techniques in the pediatric settings? Journal of Advanced Nursing, 28(5), 1030-1039.
Torrance, J. (1968). Temperature readings of premature infants. Nursing Research, 17(4), 312-320.
Weiss, M.E., Poeltler, D. & Gocka, I.(1994). Infrared tympanic thermometry for neonatal temperature assessment. Journal of Obstetric, Gynaecologic and Neonatal Nursing, 23 (9), 798-804.
Weiss, M.E. & Richards, M.T. (1994). Accuracy of electronic axillary temperature measurement in term and preterm neonates. Neonatal Network, 13(8), 35-40.
WelchAllyn. (2007). Accuracy study for the Welch Allyn Model 692/690 Sure Temp Plus Paediatric Axillary Thermometer, 1-3.
Yetman, R., Coody, D., Stewart-West, M., Mongomery, D. & Brown, M.(1993). Comparison of temperature measurements by aural infrared thermometry with measurements by traditional rectal and axillary techniques. Journal of Pediatrics, 122(5), 769-773.
Open Science Scholarly Journals
Open Science is a peer-reviewed platform, the journals of which cover a wide range of academic disciplines and serve the world's research and scholarly communities. Upon acceptance, Open Science Journals will be immediately and permanently free for everyone to read and download.
Office Address:
228 Park Ave., S#45956, New York, NY 10003
Phone: +(001)(347)535 0661
Copyright © 2013-, Open Science Publishers - All Rights Reserved