Welcome to Open Science
Contact Us
Home Books Journals Submission Open Science Join Us News
The Papilla Gown Comfort Instrument for Use with Post Mastectomy Patients
Current Issue
Volume 2, 2015
Issue 1 (January)
Pages: 1-7   |   Vol. 2, No. 1, January 2015   |   Follow on         
Paper in PDF Downloads: 55   Since Aug. 28, 2015 Views: 2534   Since Aug. 28, 2015
Ho Soon Michelle Cho, College of Nursing, Texas Woman’s University, Dallas, TX, USA.
Eun Young Lee, Institute for Health and Society, Hanyang University, Seoul, Korea.
Xian-Jin Xie, Department of Clinical Science, Simmons Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Texas, Southwestern Medical School, Dallas, TX, USA.
Gail C. Davis, College of Nursing, Texas Woman’s University, Denton, TX, USA.
Jae Eun Paek, Department of Fashion Design, Shingu College, Seoul, Korea.
Viviane B. Martins, Department of Nursing, Family Medical Clinic at North Dallas, Dallas, TX, USA.
Aim: To develop a scale for assessing the status of a functional post-mastectomy gown, Papilla Gown (PG) and a hospital gown, and to examine the reliability and validity of the PG Comfort Instrument (PGCI) that provides a wider measurement perspective and focus on emotional distress, physical disability, and environmental discomfort. Background: A comfortable and functional post-mastectomy gown, PG, is an integral part of the recovery process for post-mastectomy; however, this is an area of care that has insufficient information or research available. Design: This study used a cross-sectional study design to assess psychometric properties of the PGCI using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The PGCI was developed based on Kolcaba’s theory of comfort that assists in viewing the patient’s clothing as a portable environment. Methods: A 13-item scale was constructed and assessed by an expert committee from breast surgery centers in the Southwestern region of the in U.S. and tested in a randomized study of 142 women undergoing mastectomies for stages 2 and 3 breast cancer during 2008-2010. The sample was randomly divided into two groups: (a) sample for calibration sample for the CFA (n = 71) and (b) cross-validation sample for the CFA (n = 71). Results: The factory analyses revealed 10 items grouped into two latent factors: physiological and psychological comfort (5 items, α = 0.94) and environment comfort (5 items, α = 0.92). Conclusions: These results support the reliability and validity of the PGCI as a brief questionnaire for assessing PG comfort in post-mastectomy patients. The PGCI can be useful in future studies for measuring a precise gown comfort intervention to post-mastectomy patients.
Validity, Reliability, Instrument Development, Comfort, Post Mastectomy, Hospital Gown, Papilla Gown, Nurses, Outcome Assessment, Confirmatory Factory Analysis, Women’s Health
American Cancer Society. (2014). Breast cancer facts & figures. Retrieved from http://www.cancer.org/acs/groups/content/@epidemiologysurveilance/documents/document
Brown, M.H. (2009, July 31). That Skimpy Hospital Gown Patients Hate: Project Seeks to Find an Alternative. Robert wood Johnson Foundation, http://pweb1.rwjf.org/reports/grr/058514.htm
Cancer Center. (2012). Caring for your Jackson-Pratt drainage system. Retrieved from http://www2.mskcc.org/patient_education/_assets/downloads-english/530.pdf
Cho, H., Davis, G., Paek, J. U., Rao, R., Zhao, H., Xie, X., . . . & Leitch, M. (2012). A randomized trial of nursing interventions supporting recovery of the postmastectomy patient. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 1–11. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2702.2012.04100.x
Cho, H., & Paek, J. U. (2006). (Patent for papilla gown). U.S. Patent No. 7,010,812. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.
Cho, H., Paek, J. U., Davis, G., & Fedric, T. (2008). Expanding the comfort of postmastectomy patients using the papilla gown. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 40(1), 26–31. doi: 10.1111/j.1547-5069.2007.00202.x
Chowdhary, U., & Ryan, L. (2003). Self-esteem and apparel satisfaction with appropriate clothing value of product attributes, and support groups for mastectomy survivors. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 97, 35-44.
Chan, L. K. (2010). Body image and the breast: The psychological wound. Journal of Wound Care, 19(4), 133. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rzh&AN=2010628414
de Gutiérrez, M., Bravo, M. M., Chanes, D. C., De Vivo, M., & de Souza, G. (2007). Adherence to an early rehabilitation program among women who underwent mastectomy [portuguese]. Acta Paulista De Enfermagem, 20(3), 249–254. Retrieved From: http://ezproxy.twu.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rzh&AN=2009690073&site=ehost-live&scope=site
Gallagher, P., Allagher, P., Buckmaster, A., O’Carroll, S., Kiernan, G., & Geraghty, J. (2010). External breast prostheses in post-mastectomy care: women’s qualitative accounts. Is bra discomfort a barrier to exercise for breast cancer patients? European Journal of Cancer Care, 19, 61–71
Gho, S. A; Steele, J. R. ; Munro, B.J. (2010). Finding and fitting a breast form: tips for breast cancer survivors. Support Care Cancer, 18 (6), 735-41;
Hopwood, P., Fletcher, I., Lee, A., & Al-Ghazal, S. (2001). A body image scale for use with cancer patients. European Journal of Cancer, 37, 187–197. doi:10.1016/S0959-8049(00)00353-1
Hu, L. and Bentler, P. M. (1998). Fit indices in covariance modeling: Sensitivity to underparameterized model misspecification. Psychological Methods, 3, 424-453.
Hu, L. and Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6(1), 1-55.doi:10.1080/10705519909540118
Jones, R. B., Pearson, J., Cawsey, A. J., Bental, D., Barrett, A., White, J.,…Gilmour, W. H. (2006). Effect of different forms of information produced for cancer patients on their use of the information, social support, and anxiety: Randomized trial. British Medical Journal London, 332(7547), 942. doi:10.1136/bmj.38807.571042.68
Kärki, A., Simonen, R., Mälkiä, E., & Selfe, J. (2005). Impairments, activity limitations and participation restrictions 6 and 12 months after breast cancer operation. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine (Taylor & Francis Ltd), 37(3), 180–188. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.twu.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rzh&AN=2009002511&site=ehost-live&scope=site
Kolcaba, K. Y., & Kolcaba, R. J. (1991). An analysis of the concept of comfort. Journal of Advanced nursing, 16, 1301-1310.
Leoehlin, J. C. (2004). Latent Variable Models: An Introduction to Factor, Path, and Structural Equation Analysis. Lawrence Erlbaum, Mahwah, NJ.
Markopoulos, C., Tsaroucha, A., Kouskos, E., Mantas, D., Antonopoulou, Z., & Karvelis, S. (2009). Impact of breast cancer surgery on the self-esteem and sexual life of female patients. The Journal of International Medical Research, 37, 182–188.
McLaughlin, C. C, Lillquist, P. P, & Edge, S. B. (2009). Surveillance of prophylactic mastectomy. The Cancer Journal, 15 (5), 89-94.
McLean, M., Hodgson, D. (2006). Cancer patient’ perceptions of using a “breast gown”: A qualitative study. Journal of Radiotherapy in Practice, 5(2), 97-107.
Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. (2012). Caring for your Jackson-Pratt drainage system. Retrieved from http://www2.mskcc.org/patient_education/_assets/downloads-English/530.pdf
Miedema, B., Hamilton, R., Tatemichi, S., Thomas-Maclean, R., Hack, T. F., Quinlan, E., . . . Kwan, W. (2011). Do breast cancer survivors' postsurgery difficulties with recreational activities persist over time? Journal of Cancer Survivorship, 5(4), 405-412. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.twu.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rzh&AN=2011378237&site=ehost-live&scope=site
Niclas, C. M. (2009). Breast; Clothing; Prostheses and Implants; Prosthetic Fitting. Coping With Cancer, 23 (1), 33.
Park, J. H., Lee, W. H., & Chung, H. S. (2008). Incidence and risk factors of breast cancer lymphoedema. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 17(11), 1450–1459. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2702.2007.02187.x.
Papilla Gowns. (n.d.). Gowns for the breast cancer surgery patient. Retrieved from www.papillagown.com.
Ruffin, J. (2009). Hospital Gown Getting Redesign, NCSU Team Aims to Please Patients, The News and Observer, April 19, 2009, page 1, picked up by the Associated Press.
Stehbens, W.E. (2003). Post-mastectomy serous drainage and serous probable pathogenesis & prevention. ANL Journal of Surgery, 73(11), 877-880.
U.S. Breast Cancer Statistics. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.breastcancer.org/symptoms/understand_bc/statistics.jsp
Watkins, S. M. (Ed.). (1995). Clothing: The portable environment. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press.
Weaver, C. (2009). Caring for a patient after mastectomy. Nursing, 39(5), 44-48. doi:10.1097/01.NURSE.0000350757.93924.b5
Open Science Scholarly Journals
Open Science is a peer-reviewed platform, the journals of which cover a wide range of academic disciplines and serve the world's research and scholarly communities. Upon acceptance, Open Science Journals will be immediately and permanently free for everyone to read and download.
Office Address:
228 Park Ave., S#45956, New York, NY 10003
Phone: +(001)(347)535 0661
Copyright © 2013-, Open Science Publishers - All Rights Reserved