Sugars: Types and Their Functional Properties in Food and Human Health
Sugar is a building blocks of carbohydrates and it is naturally found in many food such as fruit, milk, vegetables and grain, another kind of sugar is added sugar which can be founded in flavored yogurt, sweetened beverages, baked goods and cereals, and it is used widely in industry. There are several types of carbohydrates, including monosaccharide and polysaccharide, which have many properties, whether in terms of the food industry or nutritionally. In addition to main function of sugars as sweetness, they also have others roles in food industry such as preservation, antioxidants, enhance the color, flavor and texture. Many food which contain high added sugar, provides energy but it is already poor in another nutrients, so that will affect the balance of intake nutrients like mineral, vitamins and proteins. Therefore, the excessive intake of sugars has a very harmful effect, especially in critical stages such as childhood, pregnancy and aging. It is very important to moderate the intake of high-content sugar food to keep the body healthy. This article views types of sugars, their functions in food and their effects on the health.
Cseke LJ, Kirakosyan A, Kaufman PB, Warber S, Duke JA, Brielmann HL: Natural products from plants. CRC press; 2016.
Erdal G, Esengün K, Erdal H, Gündüz O: Energy use and economical analysis of sugar beet production in Tokat province of Turkey. Energy 2007, 32: 35-41.
Rosa M, Prado C, Podazza G, Interdonato R, González JA, Hilal M, Prado FE: Soluble sugars: Metabolism, sensing and abiotic stress: A complex network in the life of plants. Plant signaling & behavior 2009, 4: 388-393.
Hu FB: Resolved: there is sufficient scientific evidence that decreasing sugar‐sweetened beverage consumption will reduce the prevalence of obesity and obesity‐related diseases. Obesity reviews 2013, 14: 606-619.
Miller J, Deutsch J, Kang S: Food Studies. Introduction to Research Methods 2009.
Galloway JH: The Sugar Cane Industry: An historical geography from its origins to 1914. Cambridge University Press; 2005.
Adas M: Agricultural and pastoral societies in ancient and classical history. Temple University Press; 2001.
Rolph GM: Something about sugar: Its history, growth, manufacture and distribution. JJ Newbegin; 1917.
Davis RM, Novotny TE: The epidemiology of cigarette smoking and its impact on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. American review of respiratory disease 1989, 140: S82-S84.
Cohen R: Sugar. World Nutrition 2014, 5: 642–653-642–653.
Mintz SW: Sweetness and power: The place of sugar in modern history. Penguin; 1986.
Preedy VR: Dietary sugars: Chemistry, analysis, function and effects. Royal Society of Chemistry; 2012.
Edwards CH, Rossi M, Corpe CP, Butterworth PJ, Ellis PR: The role of sugars and sweeteners in food, diet and health: Alternatives for the future. Trends in food science & technology 2016, 56: 158-166.
Holmes R: Carbohydrate digestion and absorption. Journal of Clinical Pathology Supplement (Royal College of Pathologists) 1971, 5: 10.
Clifford J, Maloney K: Sugar and sweeteners–9.301 Arrow divider image-marks separation between nested pages that are listed as breadcrumbs.
Vaclavik VA, Christian EW: Sugars, Sweeteners, and Confections. In Essentials of Food Science. Springer; 2014: 279-295.
Clifford J, Maloney K, Anderson J, Young L: Sugar and sweeteners. Food and nutrition series Health; no 9301.
Kent JA: Handbook of industrial chemistry and biotechnology. Springer Science & Business Media; 2013.
Harvey JA, Essens TA, Las RA, van Veen C, Visser B, Ellers J, Heinen R, Gols R: Honey and honey-based sugars partially affect reproductive trade-offs in parasitoids exhibiting different life-history and reproductive strategies. Journal of insect physiology 2017, 98: 134-140.
Gwak M-J, Chung S-J, Kim YJ, Lim CS: Relative sweetness and sensory characteristics of bulk and intense sweeteners. Food Science and Biotechnology 2012, 21: 889-894.
Livesey G: Health potential of polyols as sugar replacers, with emphasis on low glycaemic properties. Nutrition Research Reviews 2003, 16: 163-191.
Saulo A: Sugars and Sweeteners in Foods. Food Safety and Technology. 2005.
Zellner DA, Rozin P, Aron M, Kulish C: Conditioned enhancement of human's liking for flavor by pairing with sweetness. Learning and Motivation 1983, 14: 338-350.
Sugar N: The functional properties of sugar–on a technical level. Available online from nordicsugar com as of 2012: 1-56.
Chen XM, Kitts DD: Antioxidant activity and chemical properties of crude and fractionated Maillard reaction products derived from four sugar–amino acid Maillard reaction model systems. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 2008, 1126: 220-224.
Cerny C, Davidek T: Formation of aroma compounds from ribose and cysteine during the Maillard reaction. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2003, 51: 2714-2721.
Quintas MA, Brandao TR, Silva CL: Modelling colour changes during the caramelisation reaction. Journal of Food Engineering 2007, 83: 483-491.
Hyams JS: Sorbitol intolerance: an unappreciated cause of functional gastrointestinal complaints. Gastroenterology 1983, 84: 30-33.
Codella R, Terruzzi I, Luzi L: Sugars, exercise and health. Journal of affective disorders 2017, 224: 76-86.
Murray R: Authorised EU health claims for carbohydrate-electrolyte solutions. In Foods, Nutrients and Food Ingredients with Authorised Eu Health Claims. Elsevier; 2014: 349-372
Amin KA, Safwat G, Srirajaskanthan R: High Sucrose Diet and Antioxidant Defense. In Dietary Sugars. 2012: 770-778
ZeRVAS Y, Ekkekakis P, Emmanuel C, Psychoudaki M, Kakkos V, Serpa S, Alves J, Ferreira V, Paula-Brito A: The acute effects of increasing levels of aerobic exercise intensity on mood states. In Proceedings of the 8th World Congress of Sport Psychology 1993: 22-27.
Gearhardt AN, Corbin WR, Brownell KD: Food addiction: an examination of the diagnostic criteria for dependence. Journal of addiction medicine 2009, 3: 1-7.
Schernhammer ES, Hu FB, Giovannucci E, Michaud DS, Colditz GA, Stampfer MJ, Fuchs CS: Sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption and risk of pancreatic cancer in two prospective cohorts. Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention Biomarkers 2005, 14: 2098-2105.
Amin KA, Kamel HH, Eltawab MAA: Protective effect of Garcinia against renal oxidative stress and biomarkers induced by high fat and sucrose diet. Lipids in health and disease 2011, 10: 6.
Poulsen M, Mølck A-M, Thorup I, Breinholt V, Meyer O: The influence of simple sugars and starch given during pre-or post-initiation on aberrant crypt foci in rat colon. Cancer letters 2001, 167: 135-143.
Tasevska N, Jiao L, Cross AJ, Kipnis V, Subar AF, Hollenbeck A, Schatzkin A, Potischman N: Sugars in diet and risk of cancer in the NIH‐AARP Diet and Health Study. International journal of cancer 2012, 130: 159-169.
Rosier BT, De Jager M, Zaura E, Krom BP: Historical and contemporary hypotheses on the development of oral diseases: are we there yet? Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology 2014, 4: 92.
König KG, Navia JM: Nutritional role of sugars in oral health. The American journal of clinical nutrition 1995, 62: 275S-282S.