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Pattern of Adverse Drug Reaction in HIV-infected Children on Anti-Retroviral Therapy in Jos, Nigeria
Current Issue
Volume 2, 2014
Issue 4 (August)
Pages: 89-93   |   Vol. 2, No. 4, August 2014   |   Follow on         
Paper in PDF Downloads: 19   Since Aug. 28, 2015 Views: 1939   Since Aug. 28, 2015
Emeka U. Ejeliogu, Department of Paediatrics, University of Jos/Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Nigeria.
Augustine O. Ebonyi, Department of Paediatrics, University of Jos/Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Nigeria.
Sylvanus E. Okpe, Department of Paediatrics, University of Jos/Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Nigeria.
Esther S. Yiltok, Department of Paediatrics, University of Jos/Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Nigeria.
Olukemi O. Ige, Department of Paediatrics, University of Jos/Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Nigeria.
Martha O. Ochoga, Department of Paediatrics, Benue State University Teaching Hospital, Makurdi, Nigeria.
Christy Dady, Pharmacy Unit, AIDS Prevention Initiative in Nigeria, Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Nigeria.
Lucy Ogwuche, Pharmacy Unit, AIDS Prevention Initiative in Nigeria, Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Nigeria.
Oche O. Agbaji, Department of Medicine, University of Jos/Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Nigeria.
Prosper Okonkwo, AIDS Prevention Initiative in Nigeria (APIN) LLC, Abuja, Nigeria.
Stephen Oguche, Department of Paediatrics, University of Jos/Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Nigeria.
Background: With the recommendation of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) as the standard of care for children infected with HIV, their quality of life has improved dramatically. However anti-retroviral (ARV) drugs used in HAART regimens are often associated with adverse drug reactions (ADRs), some of which may be life-threatening. This study aimed to determine the frequency and pattern of adverse drug reactions to ARVs in children in a large treatment centre in Nigeria. Methods: HIV-infected children initiated on ART between April 2008 and March 2013 at AIDS Prevention Initiative in Nigeria (APIN)-supported HIV clinic of Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Nigeria were included in the study. Each child was followed up for a period of 12 months. A thorough symptom checklist, physical examination, and laboratory evaluation were done at baseline. We reviewed them on each scheduled monthly visit and on any event-triggered visit and assessed for adverse drug reactions. Routine laboratory evaluations were repeated at 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months after initiation of ART in accordance with monitoring guidelines. Results: Three hundred and eighty-two patients were initiated on first line ART within the stated period. One hundred and ninety-eight ADRs were observed in 139 (36.4%) patients after 12 months on ART. The commonest clinical ADRs observed were pallor (41.4%), skin rash (19.7%), vomiting (7.1%), diarrhoea (3.5%), and sleep disturbance (3.0%) while the commonest laboratory ADRs were severe anaemia (16.7%), elevated alanine transaminase (10.1%), thrombocytopenia (3.0%), and neutropenia (1.5%). About 45% of the ADRs were observed in the first 3 months of initiation of ART and about 75% in the first 6 months. Conclusion: ADRs were common in HIV-infected children that were initiated on ART in this study. Regular clinical and laboratory monitoring is necessary so that HIV-infected children on ART with ADRs can be identified early and managed appropriately in order to improve their overall treatment outcome.
HIV, Anti-Retroviral Therapy, Adverse Drug Reaction, Children, Clinical, Laboratory, Nigeria
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