Sensitivity and Antibiogram Types of Staphylococcus Species Isolated from Uropathogenic Infections
Bacteria are capable of invading and infecting humans, leading to disease and sometimes death. Specifically, Staphylococcus bacteria are known to be a common cause of infections with high prevalence worldwide. In this study, the antibiogram types of three strains of staphylococcus bacteria were investigated. The study involves 407 urine samples collected from in and out patients with suspected cases of urinary tract infections attending the University of Benin Teaching Hospital (UBTH), Benin, Edo State, Nigeria. Overall, the prevalent of staphylococcus infections was 18.67% distributed as staphylococcus aureus (36; 47.37%), Streptococcus faecalis (29; 38.16%) and staphylococcus saprophyticus (11; 14.47%). The Ajumali’s mnemonic coding showed that no two strains of any of the staphylococcus spp were the same and by implication indicating a high resolving power. However, the 18.67% burden of staphylococcus spp as a cause of UTI requires consideration.
Urinary Tract Infections, Staphylococcus Species, Antibiogram Types, Ajumali’s Mnemonic Coding
Weichhart T, Haidinger M, Hörl, WH, Säemann MD. Current concepts of molecular defence mechanisms operative during urinary tract infection. Eur J Clin Invest; 2008; 38: 29-38.
Dalela G, Gupta S, Jain DK, Mehta P. Antibiotic resistance pattern in uropathogens at a tertiary care hospital at Jhalawar with special reference to Esbl, Ampc β-Lactamase and MRSA production. J Clin Diagn Res; 2012; 6: 645-651.
Kluytmans, J.A.J.W., Mouton, J.W., IJzerman, E.P.F., Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C.M.J.E., Maat, A.W.P.M., Wagenvoort, J.H.T., and Verbrugh, H.A. Nasal carriage of S. aureus as a major risk factor for wound infections after cardiac surgery. J. Infect. Dis., 1995; 171:216–219.
Yzerman, E. P. F., H. A. M. Boelens, J. H. T. Tjhie, J. A. J. W. Kluytmans, J. W. Mouton, and H. A. Verbrugh. DAPACHE II for predicting course and outcome of nosocomial S. aureus bacteremia and its relation to host defense. J. Infect. Dis., 1996; 173:914–919.
Melzer, M., and Welch, C. Thirty-day mortality in UK patients with community-onset and hospitalacquired meticillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia. J Hosp Infect., 2013
Brown AF, Leech JM, Rogers TR and Mcloughlin RM. Staphylococcus aureus colonisation: modulation of host immune response and impact on human vaccine design. Frontiers in Immunology, 2013; 4:507.
Voss, A., Doebbeling, BN. The worldwide prevalence of methicillin- resistant S. aureus. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents, 1995 5:101–106.
Nerurkar A, Solanky P, Naik SS. Bacterial pathogens in urinary tract infection and antibiotic susceptibility pattern. J Pharm Biomed Sci; 2012; 21: 1-3.
Sood S, Gupta R. Antibiotic resistance pattern of community acquired uropathogens at a tertiary care hospital in Jaipur, Rajasthan. Indian J Community Med, 2012; 37: 39-44.
Bahadin J, Teo SSH, Mathew S. Aetiology of community-acquired urinary tract infection and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of uropathogens isolated. Singapore Med J., 2011; 52: 415- 420.
Tseng MH, Lo WT, Lin WJ, Teng CS, Chu ML, Wang CC. Changing trend in antimicrobial resistance of pediatric uropathogens in Taiwa. Pediatr Int., 2008; 50: 797-800.
Haider H, Zehia N, Munir AA, Haider A. Risk factors of urinary tract infection in pregnancy. J Pak Med Assoc., 2010; 60: 213-216.
de Francesco MA, Giuseppe R, Laura P, Riccardo N, Nino M. Urinary tract infections in Brescia, Italy: Etiology of uropathogens and antimicrobial resistance of common uropathogens. Med Sci Monit., 2007; 13: 136-144.
Leegaard TM, Caugant DA, Froholm LO, Hoiby EA. Apparent difference in antimiovrobial susceptibility as a consequence of national guidelines. Clin Microbiol Infect., 2000; 6: 290.
Kashef N, Djavid GE, Shahbazi S. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of commu-nity-acquired uropathogens in Tehran, Iran. J Infect Dev Ctries., 2010; 4: 202-206.
Theodros G. Bacterial pathogens implicated in causing urinary tract infection (UTI) and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern in Ethiopia. Revista CENIC. Ciencias Biológicas, 2010; 41: 1-6.
Orhue, P.O. Antibiogram and some indigenious plant extract susceptibility profiles of Uropathogenic Bacterial isolates from University of Benin teaching Hospital, Benin City, Ph.D Thesis 2004. Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Nigeria.
Momoh, A.R.M., Orhue, P.O., Idonije, O.B., Oaikhena A.G., Nwoke E.O., Momoh, A.A. The antibiogram types of Escherichia Coli isolated from suspected urinary tract infection samples. J. Microbiol. Biotech. Res., 2011, 1 (3): 57-65.
Joghi, K.R., Onaghise, S.M., Oyide, S.M., Wenabu, S.N.C., Uriali, A. Benin. Afr. J. Clin. Microbiol. 1984, 1(1):8-13
Momoh, A.R.M., Odike, M,A.C., Samuel, S.O; Momoh, A. A., Okolo, P.O. Benin Journal of Post Graduate Medicine. 2007, 9(1): 22-27.
Momoh, A.R.M., Momoh, A.A., Okolo, P.O. Osifoh, U. C. Annuals of Irrua Medicine 2008, 2(1): 61-64.
Miller, L.G., and Diep, B.A. Clinical practice: colonization, fomites, and virulence: rethinking the pathogenesis of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection. Clin Infect Dis., 2008; 46, 752-760.
Davis, M.F., Iverson, S.A., Baron, P., Vasse, A., Silbergeld, E.K., Lautenbach, E., and Morris, D.O. Household transmission of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and other staphylococci. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 2012; 12, 703-716.
Jawetz, E.. Enterbacteriaceae In: Brooks GF, Butel JS, Morse SA eds. Medical Microbiology 23rd ed Stamford-connecticut. Appleton and Lange. 2004, Pp 248-258.
Lutter SA, Currie ML, Mitz LB, Greenbaum LA. Antibiotic resistance patterns in children hospitalized for urinary tract infections. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2005; 159(10):924–28.