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Comparative Assessment of Diagnostic Performance of RT-PCR and Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT) Kits for the Detection of SARS-CoV-2
Current Issue
Volume 8, 2020
Issue 2 (June)
Pages: 7-14   |   Vol. 8, No. 2, June 2020   |   Follow on         
Paper in PDF Downloads: 24   Since Dec. 10, 2020 Views: 832   Since Dec. 10, 2020
Authors
[1]
Omisakin Ibukun Akinsola, Department of Haematology and Blood Transfusion, State Specialist Hospital, Abeokuta, Nigeria.
[2]
Iyevhobu Kenneth Oshiokhayamhe, Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Nigeria.
[3]
Obodo Basil Nnaemeka, Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Nigeria.
[4]
Salako Risquat Oluremi, Department of Public Health, Ogun State Ministry of Health, Oke-Mosan Abeokuta, Nigeria.
[5]
Okobi Tobechukwu Joseph, Biology Department, Georgetown University, Washington D.C., USA.
[6]
Festus Oloruntoba Okojie, Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Nigeria.
[7]
Ajayi Folake Olubunmi, Nigeria Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, Abuja, Nigeria.
[8]
Uhomoibhi Oserefuamen Trinitas, Department of Social Science and Mathematics, University of the District of Columbia, Maryland, DC., USA.
[9]
Bisiriyu Adeniyi Hakeem, Nigeria Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, Abuja, Nigeria.
[10]
Turay Ahmadu Adjin, Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Nigeria.
[11]
Omolumen Lucky Eromosele, Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Nigeria.
[12]
Animasaun Olawale Sunday, Nigeria Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, Abuja, Nigeria.
[13]
Usoro Edidiong Raphael, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Augusta University, Augusta Georgia, USA.
[14]
Amaechi Rose Akubueziuka, Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Nigeria.
[15]
Ogundare Stephen Olusegun, Morbid Anatomy and Histopathology Department, Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital, Sagamu, Nigeria.
Abstract
COVID-19 is an infectious respiratory disease that is caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. The outcome of this pandemic stemmed the interest for the development and validation of rapid diagnostic tests. This study assessed the diagnostic performance of real time (RT)-PCR and rapid diagnostic test (RDT) kit for the detection of SARS-Cov2 in Respiratory Samples. A total of one hundred (100) suspected Covid-19 patients who visited Sagamu Health Zone in Ogun State were recruited for this study. Nasopharyngeal (NP) and oropharyngeal (OP) swabs were collected from the patients in a universal transport medium and then analysed using the RT-PCR. Blood samples were also collected from the patients and analysed using diagnostic kit for 2019-Novel Coronavirus 2019-nCoV Antibody test. Diagnostic performance was determined by comparing the results obtained by Rapid Diagnostic Test RDT to Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR.). The results of this study revealed that out of a total hundred (100) suspected cases of Covid-19 recruited, sixty four (64) were RT-PCR positive and thirty six (36) were RT-PCR negative. The mean age of the patients was 36.54±12.06 while the median age was 37.5 years. The overall sensitivity and specificity were 64.5% (CI 95%; 60.5–70.6) and 70.7% (CI 95%; 65.7–74.6) respectively with diagnostic accuracy of 61.4%. Female patients had higher cases of SARS-Cov2 (65.5%) with a sensitivity of 68.2% and specificity of 71.4% while male patients had lower cases (63.4%) with a sensitivity of 60.7% and specificity of 70.0%. The results of this study revealed that the antigen-based RDT showed low to moderate sensitivity and specificity in the samples obtained from the patients in contrast to the high sensitivity and specificity obtained from RT-PCR. This study revealed that RT-PCR is an important tool for the early detection and diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 and hence should still remain the gold standard for diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 in order to prevent misdiagnosis and further guide the clinicians effectively.
Keywords
Diagnostic Performance, Coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, Rapid Diagnostic Test
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