Comparative Assessment of Diagnostic Performance of RT-PCR and Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT) Kits for the Detection of SARS-CoV-2
COVID-19 is an infectious respiratory disease that is caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. The outcome of this pandemic stemmed the interest for the development and validation of rapid diagnostic tests. This study assessed the diagnostic performance of real time (RT)-PCR and rapid diagnostic test (RDT) kit for the detection of SARS-Cov2 in Respiratory Samples. A total of one hundred (100) suspected Covid-19 patients who visited Sagamu Health Zone in Ogun State were recruited for this study. Nasopharyngeal (NP) and oropharyngeal (OP) swabs were collected from the patients in a universal transport medium and then analysed using the RT-PCR. Blood samples were also collected from the patients and analysed using diagnostic kit for 2019-Novel Coronavirus 2019-nCoV Antibody test. Diagnostic performance was determined by comparing the results obtained by Rapid Diagnostic Test RDT to Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR.). The results of this study revealed that out of a total hundred (100) suspected cases of Covid-19 recruited, sixty four (64) were RT-PCR positive and thirty six (36) were RT-PCR negative. The mean age of the patients was 36.54±12.06 while the median age was 37.5 years. The overall sensitivity and specificity were 64.5% (CI 95%; 60.5–70.6) and 70.7% (CI 95%; 65.7–74.6) respectively with diagnostic accuracy of 61.4%. Female patients had higher cases of SARS-Cov2 (65.5%) with a sensitivity of 68.2% and specificity of 71.4% while male patients had lower cases (63.4%) with a sensitivity of 60.7% and specificity of 70.0%. The results of this study revealed that the antigen-based RDT showed low to moderate sensitivity and specificity in the samples obtained from the patients in contrast to the high sensitivity and specificity obtained from RT-PCR. This study revealed that RT-PCR is an important tool for the early detection and diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 and hence should still remain the gold standard for diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 in order to prevent misdiagnosis and further guide the clinicians effectively.
Diagnostic Performance, Coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, Rapid Diagnostic Test
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