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Comparative Assessment of Diagnostic Performance of RT-PCR and Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT) Kits for the Detection of SARS-CoV-2
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Volume 8, 2020
Issue 2 (June)
Pages: 7-14   |   Vol. 8, No. 2, June 2020   |   Follow on         
Paper in PDF Downloads: 59   Since Dec. 10, 2020 Views: 3403   Since Dec. 10, 2020
Omisakin Ibukun Akinsola, Department of Haematology and Blood Transfusion, State Specialist Hospital, Abeokuta, Nigeria.
Iyevhobu Kenneth Oshiokhayamhe, Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Nigeria.
Obodo Basil Nnaemeka, Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Nigeria.
Salako Risquat Oluremi, Department of Public Health, Ogun State Ministry of Health, Oke-Mosan Abeokuta, Nigeria.
Okobi Tobechukwu Joseph, Biology Department, Georgetown University, Washington D.C., USA.
Festus Oloruntoba Okojie, Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Nigeria.
Ajayi Folake Olubunmi, Nigeria Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, Abuja, Nigeria.
Uhomoibhi Oserefuamen Trinitas, Department of Social Science and Mathematics, University of the District of Columbia, Maryland, DC., USA.
Bisiriyu Adeniyi Hakeem, Nigeria Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, Abuja, Nigeria.
Turay Ahmadu Adjin, Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Nigeria.
Omolumen Lucky Eromosele, Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Nigeria.
Animasaun Olawale Sunday, Nigeria Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, Abuja, Nigeria.
Usoro Edidiong Raphael, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Augusta University, Augusta Georgia, USA.
Amaechi Rose Akubueziuka, Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Nigeria.
Ogundare Stephen Olusegun, Morbid Anatomy and Histopathology Department, Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital, Sagamu, Nigeria.
COVID-19 is an infectious respiratory disease that is caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. The outcome of this pandemic stemmed the interest for the development and validation of rapid diagnostic tests. This study assessed the diagnostic performance of real time (RT)-PCR and rapid diagnostic test (RDT) kit for the detection of SARS-Cov2 in Respiratory Samples. A total of one hundred (100) suspected Covid-19 patients who visited Sagamu Health Zone in Ogun State were recruited for this study. Nasopharyngeal (NP) and oropharyngeal (OP) swabs were collected from the patients in a universal transport medium and then analysed using the RT-PCR. Blood samples were also collected from the patients and analysed using diagnostic kit for 2019-Novel Coronavirus 2019-nCoV Antibody test. Diagnostic performance was determined by comparing the results obtained by Rapid Diagnostic Test RDT to Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR.). The results of this study revealed that out of a total hundred (100) suspected cases of Covid-19 recruited, sixty four (64) were RT-PCR positive and thirty six (36) were RT-PCR negative. The mean age of the patients was 36.54±12.06 while the median age was 37.5 years. The overall sensitivity and specificity were 64.5% (CI 95%; 60.5–70.6) and 70.7% (CI 95%; 65.7–74.6) respectively with diagnostic accuracy of 61.4%. Female patients had higher cases of SARS-Cov2 (65.5%) with a sensitivity of 68.2% and specificity of 71.4% while male patients had lower cases (63.4%) with a sensitivity of 60.7% and specificity of 70.0%. The results of this study revealed that the antigen-based RDT showed low to moderate sensitivity and specificity in the samples obtained from the patients in contrast to the high sensitivity and specificity obtained from RT-PCR. This study revealed that RT-PCR is an important tool for the early detection and diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 and hence should still remain the gold standard for diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 in order to prevent misdiagnosis and further guide the clinicians effectively.
Diagnostic Performance, Coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, Rapid Diagnostic Test
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