Welcome to Open Science
Contact Us
Home Books Journals Submission Open Science Join Us News
Apoptosis: Insight into Stages, Extrinsic and Intrinsic Pathways
Current Issue
Volume 7, 2019
Issue 3 (September)
Pages: 80-82   |   Vol. 7, No. 3, September 2019   |   Follow on         
Paper in PDF Downloads: 31   Since Aug. 29, 2019 Views: 680   Since Aug. 29, 2019
Authors
[1]
Abdu-Alhameed Ali Azzwali, Department of Medical Laboratory, Faculty of Medical Technology, Sabratha University, Surman, Libya.
[2]
Azab Elsayed Azab, Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Sabratha University, Sabratha, Libya.
Abstract
Background: Apoptosis is a vital process for normal cell turnover, proper development and functioning of the immune system, embryonic development and chemical-induced cell death. Objectives: The present review aims to spotlight on the stages and mechanisms of programmed cell death. Apoptosis, known as programmed cell death, is a homeostatic mechanism that generally occurs during development and aging in order to keep cells in tissue. It can also act as a protective mechanism, for example, in immune response or if cells are damaged by toxin agents or diseases. In cancer treatment, drugs and irradiation used in chemotherapy leads to DNA damage, which results in triggering apoptosis through the p53 dependent pathway in cancer treatment, drugs and irradiation used in chemotherapy leads to DNA damage, which results in triggering apoptosis through the p53 dependent pathway. Corticosteroids can cause apoptotic death in a number of cells. A number of changes in cell morphology are related to the different stages of apoptosis, which includes nuclear DNA fragmentation, cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation, membrane blebbing, and the formation of apoptotic bodies. There are three pathways for apoptosis, the intrinsic (mitochondrial) and extrinsic (death receptor) are the two major paths that are interlinked and that can effect one another. Conclusion: It can be concluded that apoptosis is a homeostatic mechanism that generally occurs during development and aging in order to keep cells in tissue. Drugs and irradiation used in chemotherapy leads to DNA damage, which results in triggering apoptosis through the p53 dependent pathway. The apoptosis, stages are includes nuclear DNA fragmentation, cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation, membrane blebbing, and the formation of apoptotic bodies. There are three pathways for apoptosis.
Keywords
Apoptosis, Stages of Apoptosis, Extrinsic Pathway, Intrinsic Pathway, Mechanisms of Apoptosis
Reference
[1]
Kabel, A. M., Adwas, A. A., Elkhoely, A. A., Abdel-Rahman, M. N., and Eissa, A. A. (2016). Apoptosis: insights into pathways and role of p53, Bcl-2 and sphingosine kinases. Journal of Cancer Research and Treatment, 4, 69-72.‏
[2]
Elmore, S. (2007). Apoptosis:a review of programmed cell death. Toxicologic, pathology. Toxicol Pathol, 35 (4), 495–516.
[3]
Davidovich P, Kearney CJ, Martin SJ. (2014). Inflammatory outcomes of apoptosis, necrosis and necroptosis. Biol Chem., 395 (10): 1163-71.
[4]
Chaabane W, User SD, El-Gazzah M, Jaksik R, Sajjadi E, Rzeszowska-Wolny J, Łos MJ. (2013). Autophagy, Apoptosis, Mitoptosis and Necrosis: Interdependence Between Those Pathways and Effects on Cancer. Arch Immunol Ther Exp., 61: 43-58.
[5]
Norbury, C. L and Hickson, I. D. (2001). Cellular responses to DNA damage. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol, 41, 367-401.
[6]
Hacker, G (2000). The morphology of apoptosis. Cell Tissue Res, 301 (1), 5-17.
[7]
Hoffmann, P. R., Ogden, C. A., Leverrier, Y., Bratton, D. L., Daleke, D. L., Ridley, A. J.,... & Henson, P. M. (2001). Phosphatidylserine (PS) induces PS receptor–mediated macropinocytosis and promotes clearance of apoptotic cells. The Journal of cell biology, 155 (4), 649-660.‏
[8]
Wong, R. S. (2002). Apoptosis in cancer: from pathogenesis to treatment. J Exp Clin Cancer Res, 30 (1), 1-14.
[9]
Igney, F. H. and Krammer, P. H. (2002). Death and anti-death:tumour resistance to apoptosis. Nat Rev cancer, 2, 277-288.
[10]
Hengartner, M O (2000). Apoptosis corralling the corpses. Cell, 104, 325-328.
[11]
Schneider, P and Tschopp, J (2000). Apoptosis induced by death receptors. PharmActa Helv, 74, 281-286.
[12]
O’brien, M. A and Kirby, R.(2008). Apoptosis: a review of pro-apoptotic and antiapoptotic pathways and dysregulation in disease. J Vet Emerg Crit Care, 18 (6), 572-585.
[13]
Karp, G. (2008). Cell and molecular biology. 5th ed., John New Jersey.
[14]
Danial, N. N and Korsmeyer, S. J. (2004). Cell death: critical control points. Cell, 116 (2), 205-216.
[15]
Reed, J. C. (1997). Bcl-2 family proteins: regulators of apoptosis and chemoresistance in haematologic malignancies. Seminars in hematology, 34 (4 Suppl 5): 9-19.
Open Science Scholarly Journals
Open Science is a peer-reviewed platform, the journals of which cover a wide range of academic disciplines and serve the world's research and scholarly communities. Upon acceptance, Open Science Journals will be immediately and permanently free for everyone to read and download.
CONTACT US
Office Address:
228 Park Ave., S#45956, New York, NY 10003
Phone: +(001)(347)535 0661
E-mail:
LET'S GET IN TOUCH
Name
E-mail
Subject
Message
SEND MASSAGE
Copyright © 2013-, Open Science Publishers - All Rights Reserved