Antibacterial Activity and Toxicological Properties of Ethanolic Leaf Extract from Carica papaya
This study was carried out to investigate the antibacterial activities and toxicological properties of the ethanolic leaf extract from pawpaw (Carica papaya). The phytochemical screening of the extract showed that cardenolides and saponins are present in the leaf extract. The extract was tested for antibacterial activities against some clinical microorganisms such as Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia, Streptococcus pyrogenes, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeroginosaand Enterobacter aerogenes. The test was carried out using the agar well diffusion method. The in- vivo assay of the experiment was carried out on albino rats. This was done in order to determine the toxicological effect of the plant extract on mammals. The result showed that the plant extract has antibacterial effect against some of the organisms at different concentrations, the zones of inhibition also increased with increased concentration. It was observed that Klebsiella pneumonia, Streptococcus pyrogenes and Enterobacter aerogenes were not inhibited in all the concentrations of the extract. At 150mg/ml of the extract, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus had zones of inhibition of 8.0, 8.0 and 6.0mm respectively. The weight of the rats decreased during infection while there was significant increase in their weight when the extract was administered to them. The haematological studies carried out on their blood sample revealed that there was decrease in the percentage of erythrocyte sedimentation rate, packed cell volume, haemoglobin estimation, red blood cell count and lymphocyte during infection while there was increase in the percentage of white blood cell, neutrophils, eosinophils, monocytes and basophil during infection. The result obtained for the treated is close to that of the control. The histopathological analysis showed that the heart of rat infected with S. aureus had necrosis, slight hemorrhage and deep vacoulation of heart striata. Photomicrograph of heart of rat infected with P. aeruginosa revealed divergence of heart striata with necrotic edge while the photomicrograph of the intestine of rat infected with E. coli showed washed intestinal villi and hemorrhagic edge. The treated rats had recuperating heart and intestine which is close to that of the control.
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