How Drugs and Stress Alter the Human Metabolism: A Mini Review
Humans are born with the metabolic ability to adapt to various different conditions and threats in order to secure survival. Thereby the continuous aim is to maintain homeostasis, to keep the body in a functional state. This review paper aims to discuss metabolic alterations when the body's homeostasis is disturbed by environmental or chemical factors. Different research papers revealed a high metabolic suggestibility initiated from different influences, especially alcohol, cannabis, 3, 4-Methyl enedioxy methamphetamine (MDMA) and stress as discussed in the following. Alcohol, known for disrupting neurotransmitter pathways, leads to alterations in hormone production, as well as impaired motor functions and pain recognition. Furthermore, its metabolic end-products disturb metabolic energy pathways and result in increased fat storage. Cannabis’ active molecules, Δ9-trans-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and Cannabidiol (CBD), interact with receptors resulting in psychoactive effects such as a mental high, pain relief and paranoia, but not altering the metabolism to a great extent, unless abused by individuals. MDMA, a psychoactive drug, enhances pro-social behavior by altering hormone levels. Stress, a metabolic response to mental or physical threats, is known to have beneficial effects, in order to help the body resist threats. Chronic stress is known to depress the immune system, causing brain damage, as well as diabetes or even cancer, and the same applies to traumatic stress, which is defined by severe acute stress.
Homeostasis, Trauma, Chronic Stress, MDMA, Alcohol, Cannabis
Tymoczko, J., Berg, J., Stryer, L. and Gatto Jr, G. (2015). Biochemistry. 8th ed. New York, NY: W. H. Freeman & Co., pp.714-715.
Hall, J. and Guyton, A. (2016). Guyton and Hall textbook of medical physiology. 13th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier, pp.729-736, 752-761, 773-785, 939-950, 965-982.
Banerjee, N. (2014). Neurotransmitters in alcoholism: A review of neurobiological and genetic studies. Indian Journal of Human Genetics, [online] 20 (1), p.20. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4065474/.
Cederbaum, A. (2012). ALCOHOL METABOLISM. HHS Public Access. [online] Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3484320/
Rachdaoui, N. and Sarkar, D. (2018). Pathophysiology of the Effects of Alcohol Abuse on the Endocrine System. Alcohol Research: Current Reviews. [online] Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5513689/
Traversy, G. and Chaput, J. (2015). Alcohol Consumption and Obesity: An Update. Current Obesity Reports, [online] 4 (1), pp.122-130. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4338356/.
Sharma, C., Sadek, B., Goyal, S., Sinha, S., Kamal, M. and Ojha, S. (2015). Small Molecules from Nature Targeting G-Protein Coupled Cannabinoid Receptors: Potential Leads for Drug Discovery and Development. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, [online] 2015, pp.1-26. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4664820/.
Lucas, C., Galettis, P. and Schneider, J. (2018). The pharmacokinetics and the pharmacodynamics of cannabinoids. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, [online] 84 (11), pp.2477-2482. Available at: https://bpspubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/bcp.13710.
Berman, P., Futoran, K., Lewitus, G., Mukha, D., Benami, M., Shlomi, T. and Meiri, D. (2018). A new ESI-LC/MS approach for comprehensive metabolic profiling of phytocannabinoids in Cannabis. Scientific Reports, [online] 8 (1). Available at:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6155167/.
Pamplona, F., da Silva, L. and Coan, A. (2018). Potential Clinical Benefits of CBD-Rich Cannabis Extracts Over Purified CBD in Treatment-Resistant Epilepsy: Observational Data Meta-analysis. Frontiers in Neurology, [online] 9. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6143706/.
Abulseoud, O., Zuccoli, M., Zhang, L., Barnes, A., Huestis, M. and Lin, D. (2017). The acute effect of cannabis on plasma, liver and brain ammonia dynamics, a translational study. European Neuropsychopharmacology, [online] 27 (7), pp.679-690. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6091863/.
Green, K., Doherty, E. and Ensminger, M. (2016). Long-term consequences of adolescent cannabis use: Examining intermediary processes. The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, [online] 43 (5), pp.567-575. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5784846/.
Hysek, C., Schmid, Y., Simmler, L., Domes, G., Heinrichs, M., Eisenegger, C., Preller, K., Quednow, B. and Liechti, M. (2013). MDMA enhances emotional empathy and prosocial behavior. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, [online] 9 (11), pp.1645-1652. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4221206/#nst161-B22.
Steinkellner, T., Freissmuth, M., Sitte, H. and Montgomery, T. (2011). The ugly side of amphetamines: short- and long-term toxicity of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ‘Ecstasy’), methamphetamine and d-amphetamine. Biological Chemistry, [online] 392 (1-2). Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4497800/.
Mariotti, A. (2015). The effects of chronic stress on health: new insights into the molecular mechanisms of brain–body communication. Future Science OA, [online] 1 (3). Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5137920/.
Wosu, A., Valdimarsdóttir, U., Shields, A., Williams, D. and Williams, M. (2013). Correlates of cortisol in human hair: implications for epidemiologic studies on health effects of chronic stress. Annals of Epidemiology, [online] 23 (12), pp.797-811.e2. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3963409/.
Heim, C., Nater, U., Maloney, E., Boneva, R., Jones, J. and Reeves, W. (2009). Childhood Trauma and Risk for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. Archives of General Psychiatry, [online] 66 (1), p.72. Available at: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamapsychiatry/fullarticle/482949.
Schrepf, A., Markon, K. and Lutgendorf, S. (2014). From Childhood Trauma to Elevated C-Reactive Protein in Adulthood. Psychosomatic Medicine, [online] 76 (5), pp.327-336. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5660872/.
Costanzo, L. (2015). Physiology. 6th ed. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Health, pp. 241-247.
McEwen, B. (2017). Neurobiological and Systemic Effects of Chronic Stress. Chronic Stress, [online] 1, p.247054701769232. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5573220/.
Yaribeygi, H., Panahi, Y., Sahraei, H., Johnston, T. and Sahebkar, A. (2018). The impact of stress on body function: A review. EXCLI, [online] 16 (1611-2156), pp.1057-1072. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5579396/.
Medlineplus.gov. (n.d.). Chronic Fatigue Syndrome | CFS | MedlinePlus. [online] Available at: https://medlineplus.gov/chronicfatiguesyndrome.html.