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How Drugs and Stress Alter the Human Metabolism: A Mini Review
Current Issue
Volume 7, 2019
Issue 1 (March)
Pages: 16-19   |   Vol. 7, No. 1, March 2019   |   Follow on         
Paper in PDF Downloads: 47   Since May 15, 2019 Views: 715   Since May 15, 2019
Authors
[1]
Rotem Dayan, School of Medicine, European University Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus.
[2]
Aylin Schmidt, School of Medicine, European University Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus.
[3]
Jasmin Geilfus, School of Medicine, European University Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus.
[4]
Rebecca Zeeb, School of Medicine, European University Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus.
[5]
Anastasia Potapova, School of Medicine, European University Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus.
[6]
Ioannis Patrikios, School of Medicine, European University Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus.
Abstract
Humans are born with the metabolic ability to adapt to various different conditions and threats in order to secure survival. Thereby the continuous aim is to maintain homeostasis, to keep the body in a functional state. This review paper aims to discuss metabolic alterations when the body's homeostasis is disturbed by environmental or chemical factors. Different research papers revealed a high metabolic suggestibility initiated from different influences, especially alcohol, cannabis, 3, 4-Methyl enedioxy methamphetamine (MDMA) and stress as discussed in the following. Alcohol, known for disrupting neurotransmitter pathways, leads to alterations in hormone production, as well as impaired motor functions and pain recognition. Furthermore, its metabolic end-products disturb metabolic energy pathways and result in increased fat storage. Cannabis’ active molecules, Δ9-trans-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and Cannabidiol (CBD), interact with receptors resulting in psychoactive effects such as a mental high, pain relief and paranoia, but not altering the metabolism to a great extent, unless abused by individuals. MDMA, a psychoactive drug, enhances pro-social behavior by altering hormone levels. Stress, a metabolic response to mental or physical threats, is known to have beneficial effects, in order to help the body resist threats. Chronic stress is known to depress the immune system, causing brain damage, as well as diabetes or even cancer, and the same applies to traumatic stress, which is defined by severe acute stress.
Keywords
Homeostasis, Trauma, Chronic Stress, MDMA, Alcohol, Cannabis
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