Pharmacological Management of Cardiovascular Diseases at a Teaching Hospital in Ghana
Owusu I. K., Department of Medicine, School of Medical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST), Kumasi, Ghana; Directorate of Medicine, Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Kumasi, Ghana.
Buabeng K. O., Department of Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, KNUST, Kumasi, Ghana.
Agyapong T., Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, KNUST, Kumasi, Ghana.
Ansah C. A., Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, KNUST, Kumasi, Ghana.
A global report by World Health Organization estimated that the disease burden of cardiovascular diseases in Africa has reached epidemic level. Increasing urbanization and westernization in Africa is likely to escalate the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases on the continent, which is already burdened with infectious diseases. The aim of this study was to compare the existing pharmacotherapy for cardiac arrhythmias of clinical relevance, ischaemic heart diseases (IHD) and heart failure to recommendations in national and international guidelines. A purposively designed data sheet was used to extract data from 248 patients presenting with confirmed diagnosis of heart failure, arrhythmias and ischaemic heart disease from January-June 2015 at the cardiac clinic, Directorate of Medicine, Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Kumasi, Ghana. Data obtained included demographic characteristics, laboratory investigations, medical history and treatment. The average age of participants was 60 ± 17.9 years. Heart failure was present in 72% of the patients (n=209) followed by arrhythmias 15% (n=42) and IHD 12% (n=37). The predominant medicines in heart failure patients were loop diuretics (89%), angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blockers (80%), beta-blockers (63%), aldosterone antagonists (56%), antiplatelets (44%) and cardiac glycosides (32%). IHD was managed principally with beta-blockers (73%), antiplatelets (75.7%), statins (70.3%) and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers (70.2%). Patients with arrrhythmias (mostly atrial fibrillation) received beta-blockers (71.5%), antithrombotics (70%) and other antiarrhythmic agents (11.9%). Assessment of pharmacotherapy conformity to selected local and international guidelines yielded 99.2%. In conclusion, heart failure was the most common cardiovascular disease seen, followed by arrhythmias and IHD respectively; and they were managed with appropriate pharmacological agents in line with recommendations in guidelines.
Cardiovascular Disease, Pharmacological Management, Heart Failure, Ischaemic Heart Disease, Arrhythmias
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