Hypertensive Heart Failure in Kumasi, Ghana
Hypertension has become a major public health issue worldwide, and it has been found to be the most common cause of heart failure in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa. This was an observational study designed to determine the demographic and clinical characteristics of hypertensive heart failure patients seen at the department of medicine, Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH), Kumasi, Ghana. Medical records of 180 hypertensive heart failure patients were selected using simple random sampling. The baseline demographic, clinical, chest X-ray, electrocardiographic (ECG) and echocardiographic characteristics of the patients were examined. One hundred and eighty (180) hypertensive heart failure were studied. They were aged between 24 - 88 years with the mean age ( SD) of 63.59 (±18.12) years. There were more females (52.22%; n=94) than males (47.78%; n=86). The mean systolic blood pressure ( SD) and the mean diastolic blood pressure ( SD) were 162.42 (± 32.18) and 92.29 (±18.54) respectively. The pulse rate ranged between 43-168 beats/minute with the mean pulse rate ( SD) of 85.24 (± 20.71) beats/minute. Most (46 %) of the patients presented with NYHA functional class 4. The most common presenting complaint was shortness of breath (72.22%), followed by easy fatiguability (50%), and palpitation (43.89%). The main clinical signs were pulmonary oedema (80%) and displaced apex beat (67.78%). Chest X-ray showed cardiomegaly in 71.11% of the patients. ECG LVH and echocardiographic LVH were seen in 75.56 % and 83.33% of the patients respectively. Prevalence of heart failure with preserve ejection fraction (HFPEF) was 62.22 %. Left ventricular systolic dysfunction with or with diastolic dysfunction was seen in 37.78 % of the patients. In conclusion, the most common clinical presentation of patients seen at KATH, Kumasi, with hypertensive heart failure were shortness of breath, easy fatiguability, pulmonary oedema and displaced apex beat. The prevalence of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF) among the patients was high.
Hypertension, Heart Failure, Prevalence, Left Ventricular Hypertrophy, Ghana
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