Urine Examination and Renal Function in Adult Patients Attending Outpatient Clinics in Kumasi: Cross-Sectional Study
Background: Early identification and treatment of kidney diseases in adults are important in prevention of chronic kidney diseases. Objective: To determine the prevalence of abnormal urine dipstick findings, abnormal urine microscopy and chronic kidney diseases (CKD) among patients reporting at KomfoAnokye Teaching Hospital (KATH), Kumasi, Ghana. Design: Cross-sectional study Setting: Directorate of Medicine and Polyclinic outpatient clinics of KATH. Methods: A total of 424 patients, 20 years and over reporting for the first time to KATH were recruited, 414 were included in the analysis and 10 were excluded. 76 had neither diabetes mellitus (DM) nor systemic hypertension 92 had only DM, 106 had only hypertension and 140 had both. A questionnaire was filled and anthropometric measurements were taken. Serum creatinine was determined from venous blood samples and urine dipsticks and microscopy were done. The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the Cockcroft and Gault equation. CKD was defined and classified by The National Kidney Foundation’s Kidney Diseases Outcomes Quality Initiative guidelines. Results: The prevalence of proteinuria was 16%, glycosuria was 16%, abnormal urine microscopy 6%, haematuria 1% and CKD 39%. There were no cases of Stage 5 CKD. The mean (sd) creatinine was 98.61 (27.30) μmol/L, mean urea was 4.41 (1.71) mmol/L and mean eGFR was 118.5 (57.5)ml/min/1.73 m2. There were significantly more males than females and more hypertensives than normotensives with CKD. Conclusion: The prevalence of proteinuria and CKD in patients attending clinics in Kumasi, Ghana was high. There is the need for more and regular screening of patients especially those with hypertension and DM.
Systemic Hypertension, Chronic Kidney Disease, Renal Failure, Proteinuria
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