Welcome to Open Science
Contact Us
Home Books Journals Submission Open Science Join Us News
Investigation of Concentration and Distribution of Manganese and Iron in Ground and Surface Water in Naraguta, North Central Nigeria
Current Issue
Volume 6, 2019
Issue 2 (June)
Pages: 20-35   |   Vol. 6, No. 2, June 2019   |   Follow on         
Paper in PDF Downloads: 49   Since Jul. 8, 2019 Views: 914   Since Jul. 8, 2019
Moses Ogbochi Ogar, National Metallurgical Development Centre, Jos, Nigeria.
Dare Victor Abere, National Metallurgical Development Centre, Jos, Nigeria.
Linus Okon Asuquo, National Metallurgical Development Centre, Jos, Nigeria.
Sebastian Igah Otebe, Department of Dams and Reservoir Operation, Federal Ministry of Water Resources, Garki, Abuja.
Temitope Emmanuel-Alonge, National Metallurgical Development Centre, Jos, Nigeria.
Dorcas Oluyemi Joseph, National Metallurgical Development Centre, Jos, Nigeria.
Moses Olumide Ogunronbi, National Metallurgical Development Centre, Jos, Nigeria.
Ojoma Helen Adejo, National Metallurgical Development Centre, Jos, Nigeria.
Florence Dennis Uzuh, National Metallurgical Development Centre, Jos, Nigeria.
Christopher Gambo, National Metallurgical Development Centre, Jos, Nigeria.
This work investigated the concentrations of iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) in surface water and groundwater within Naraguta Sheet 168 in North Central Nigeria with the view to ascertain and demarcate areas of possible hazards due to high concentrations of these metals (Fe and Mn) in groundwater and surface water within the study area. A total of 79 water samples were systematically collected from different sample locations and analyzed using Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) Machine. This study established that the concentrations of iron (Fe) in groundwater is (< 0.001 – 0.931 mg/l) while that of manganese (Mn) is (< 0.0005 – 0.65812 mg/l). Also, the concentrations of iron (Fe) in surface water is (< 0.001 – 0.735 mg/l) while that of manganese (Mn) is (< 0.0005 – 0.63137 mg/l). Fe concentrations above the recommended 0.3 mg/l were found around the central, southern and eastern parts of the area corresponding roughly to the areas underlain by the Jos-Bukuru, Ganawuri as well as Forum complexes, while Mn concentrations in excess of the recommended 0.1 mg/l occur mainly within the central part underlain essentially by the Jos-Bukuru Complex. There is a health risk therefore if such water is consumed over a long period. Result of regression analyses for Fe and Mn in both groundwater and surface water gave an R2 value of 0.015 and 0.401 respectively. This is not statistically significant. It implies therefore that the most important factor determining the concentrations of iron and manganese in surface and groundwater in this area is the underlying lithology.
Concentrations, Ground Water, Iron, Manganese, Lithology
Sawyer, C N and McCarty, P L. (1967) Chemistry for Sanitary Engineers, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York Development. McGraw Hill Publication Comp.
UNESCO, 2004. Groundwater Resources of the World and their use. Edited by Zekster S, Everett G.
Biswas, A. K. (1998); Water Resources: Environmental Planning Management and Control, Journal of Environmental Science, 4 (3), 311-320.
Das J, Sahoo K R, Sinha B. k., 2002. Urban Ground Water Pollution: A Case Study in Cuttack City, India. Ground Water Monitoring & Remediation 22, no 3. 95-103.
Hallberg R O, Martinell R H,. 1988. Method of purifying groundwater U.S. Patent Number 4755304. Accessed at 29/05/2012. Available at http://www.google.com/patents?id=ALU4AAAAEBAJ&printsec=abstract&zoom=4#v=onepage&q&f=false.
Sharma S K, Petruseveki B, Schippers J. C, 2001. Advance Groundwater Treatment Iron, Manganese, Fluoride and Boron Removal. http://www.bvsde.paho.org/bvsacd/congreso/iron.pdf.
Tredoux G, Israel S, Cave LC., 2004. The Feasibility of in Situ Groundwater Remediation as robust low-cost water treatment option. Water Research Commission Report No 1325/1/04.
Macfarlane D. S, Cherry J A, Gillham R W and Sudicky E A, 1982. Migration of Contamination in Groundwater at a Landfill: A Case Study. Journal of Hydrology, 63. 1-29.
Momodu M. A and Anyakora C A, 2010, Heavy Metal Contamination of Groundwater: The Surulere Case Study. Research Journal Environment and Earth Sciences 2 (1): 39-43.
Nazari M. M, Burston M. W, Bishop P. K, Lerner D., 1993. Urban Ground-water pollution: A case study from Coventry, United Kingdom. Vol 31. No 3- Groundwater. 417-424.
Moody W, 1996. Sources and Extent of Groundwater Contamination. U. S. Geological Survey. Available at: http://infohouse.p2ric.org/ref/01/00065.htm. Accessed at 06/02/2012.
Muhammad S, Shah T. M, khan S., 2011. Health Risk Assessment of heavy metals and their source apportionment in drinking water of Kohistan Region, Northern Pakistan, Microchemical Journal 98, 334-343.
Salem M. H, Eweida A. E, FaragAzza., 2000. Heavy Metals in Drinking Water and their Environmental Impact on Human Health, 542-556.
Ebermann J, Eichorn D, Macheleidt W, Grischek T., 2010. Groundwater Quality Sustainbility. Edited by Zuber A, Kania J, Kmiecik E. 895-901.
Jaudon P, massini J, Galea J, Rey J, 1989. Groundwater Pollution by Manganese. Manganese Speciation: Application to the selection and discussion of the in Situ Groundwater Treatment. The Science of the Total Environment, 84 (1989) 169-183.
Akan, J. C., Ogugbuaja, V. O., Abdulrahaman, F. I. and Ayodele, J. T,. (2007), Determination of Pollutant Levels in Water of River Challawa and in tap after from Kano Indusial Area, Kano state, Nigeria. Research Journal of Environmental Sciences. 1 (5): pp. 211-219.
Broker, R. E., and P. C Johnson (1984). Behaviour of phosphate, Nitrate and Chloride and Hardness in 12 Welsh Rivers. Water Research 18 (9): 1155-1164.
Adesiyum A. A, J. O Adekeye, J. U Umoh and M. Nadarajah (1983). Studies on Well Waters and Possible Health Risks in Katsina, Nigeria. Journal of Hygiene 90: 199-201.
Lawani, S. A., and J. O Imeokparia (1983). Distribution of Nitrates in Drinking Waters of Kwara State Nigeria. Bull ChemSos. Nigeria 8, 27-30.
Mombeshore, C, Ajayi S. O and Osibanjo (1981). Pollution Status of bottled water in Akwa-Ibom State, Eastern Nigeria. Pro. of the Chemical Society of Nigeria. Yerwa, 2005 pp 232-241.
Orisakwe, O, I. O Igwilo, O. J Afonne, Maduabuchi J. U, E. O Obi and J. C Nduka (2006). Heavy metal hazards of sachet water in Nigeria. Arch. Environ. Occup. Health (5); 209-213.
Onwuka, S. U., V. I. E Ajiwe and V. C Nnodu (2007). Pollution level of some boreholes in Onitsha, Anambra State, Nigeria. Anamchem Journal, 2007. (1), 49-53.
Emoyan, O. O., F. E Ogban and E. Akara (2006). Evaluation of Heavy Metals Loading of River Ijana in Ekpan-Warri, Nigeria. Journal of Applied Science Environ mgt. 121-127.
Sharma, B. K. (2006): Industrial chemistry, 15th ed., Krishna Media Ltd., Delhi, p. 100.
Marcorechio, J. E S. E Botte and R. H Frije (2007). Heavy Metals, Majormetals, Trace Elements. In: Handbook of Water Analysis. C. M. Noeffect. Ed 2nd edn. London. CRC Press pp 275-311.
Nova Scotia Environment, 2008. Iron and Manganese. Available at: http://www.gov.ns.ca/nse/water/docs/droponwaterFAQ_IronManganese.pdf.
Open Science Scholarly Journals
Open Science is a peer-reviewed platform, the journals of which cover a wide range of academic disciplines and serve the world's research and scholarly communities. Upon acceptance, Open Science Journals will be immediately and permanently free for everyone to read and download.
Office Address:
228 Park Ave., S#45956, New York, NY 10003
Phone: +(001)(347)535 0661
Copyright © 2013-, Open Science Publishers - All Rights Reserved