An Integrated Analysis of Landsat OLI Image and Satellite Gravity Data for Geological Mapping in North Kordofan State, Sudan
Khalid A. Elsayed Zeinelabdein , Department of Geology, Faculty of Petroleum and Minerals,Al Neelain University, Khartoum, Sudan.
Mohammed S. Elemam , Department of Geology, Faculty of Petroleum and Minerals,Al Neelain University, Khartoum, Sudan.
Hamdi A. Ali , Department of Geology, Faculty of Science and Technology,Omdurman Islamic University, Omdurman, Sudan.
Osman M. Alhassan , Department of Geology, Faculty of Science and Technology,Omdurman Islamic University, Omdurman, Sudan.
North Kordofan Region is characterized by poor rock exposure, which makes the traditional field mapping always a problematic issue. The objective of the present study to test the viability of integrating Landsat 8 OLI image and satellite gravity data with limited field work for regional geological mapping in poorly exposed areas. Remote sensing has proven a valuable aid in geological mapping and exploring for mineral deposits. However, this technique has limitations, especially in vegetated areas or regions characterized by poor rock exposure. The processing of Landsat 8 OLI image utilizing various remote sensing techniques such as colour composite, PCA, band ratoing and PC spectral sharpening improved the visual interpretation of the image set. The enhanced image provided persuasive spectral information helpful for discriminating the various rock units. Bouguer anomaly map produced from the processed satellite gravity data provided complementary information that assisted in the delineation of the boundary of different rock domains in addition to the enhancement of the linear features which in most cases represent structural elements such as faults and shear zones. The integration of the different datasets including the enhanced satellite images and gravity data with the petrographic investigation of some selected rock samples in the GIS environment facilitated the production of the final geological map of the study area, which is of accepted credibility and relatively took shorter time frame. Therefore, this integrated approach should be adopted in mapping similar regions of the same characteristics.
Landsat 8 OLI Images, Satellite Gravity, Geological Mapping, North Kordofan, Sudan
E. E. Mshiu. Landsat remote sensing data as an alternative approach for geological mapping in Tanzania: a case study in the Rungwe Volcanic Province, south-western Tanzania. Tanz. J. Sci. Vol. 37: p 26-36, 2011.
F.F.Sabins.Remote Sensing, Principles and Interpretation, 3rd ed. Freeman & Co., New York, USA, 1997.
B.Sadeghi, M.Khalajmasoumi, P.Afzal, P.Moarefvand, A.B.Yasrebi, A.Wetherelt, P. Foster, and A.Ziazarifi. Using ETM+ and ASTER sensors to identify iron occurrences in the Esfordi 1:100,000 mapping sheet of Central Iran. Journal of African Earth Sciences 85:103–114, 2013.
W.R.Greenwood, D.G. Hadley, R.E. Anderson, R.J. Fleck and D. L. Schmidt. Late Proterozoic cratonization in southwestern Saudi Arabia. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A, 280, 517-527, 1976.
E.M. Abdelrahman.Geochemical and geotectonic controls of the metallugenetic evolution of selected ophiolite complexes from the Sudan. Berl. Geowiss. Abh. A 145, 175, 1993.
H. Schandelmeier, A. Richter,U. Harms and E.M.Abdelrahman.Lithology and structure of the late Proterozoic Jebel Rahib Fold and Thrust belt (NW Sudan). Berliner Geowiss. Abh. A 122.1.pp. 15-30, 1990.
Geological Research Authority of Sudan. Geological map of Sudan, scale 1: 2,000,000, 1982.
E.M.Abdelrahman, U. Harms, H. Schandelmeier, G. Franz, D. P. F. Darbyshire, P. Horn and D. Müller-Sohnius. A new ophiolite occurrence in NW Sudan -constraints on Late Proterozoic tectonism. Terra Nova, 2,363-376, 1990.
M. G. Abdelsalam and A. S. Dawoud. The Kabus ophiolitic mélange, Sudan, and its bearing on the western boundary of the Nubian Shield.Journal of the Geological Society, London, 148, 83-92, 1991.
D. Müller-Sohniusand P.Horn. K-Ar dating of ring complexes and fault systems in Northern Kordofan, Sudan: evidence for independent magmatic and tectonic activity. Geol. Rundsch, 83: 604-613, 1994.
D. Kuster, J.P. Liegeois, D. Matukovb, S. Sergeev, and F. Lucassenc. Zircon geochronology and Sr, Nd, Pb isotope geochemistry of granitoids from Bayuda Desert and Sabaloka (Sudan): Evidence for a Bayudian event (920–900 Ma) preceding the Pan-African orogenic cycle (860–590 Ma) at the eastern boundary of the Saharan Metacraton. Precambrian Research 164: 16–39, 2008.
N. H. Kenea. Digital enhancement of Landsat data, spectral analysis and GIS data integration for geological studies of the Derudeb area, Southern Red Sea Hills, NE Sudan, Berl. Geowiss. Abh. D, Band14, 1997.
S.A.Drury.Image interpretation in geology, 2nd ed. Chapman & Hall, London, UK, 1987.
J.R.Jensen. Introductory digital image processing: a remote sensing perspective. 2nd ed. Prentice Hall Inc. New Jersey, USA, 1996.
J.E.Estes. Manual of Remote Sensing, 2nd ed., volume II, Interpretation and Application.Pub. by American Society of Photogammetry, the Sheridan Press, USA, 1983.
M. Sultan, R. E. Arvidson, R. C. Sturchio and E. A. Guiness. Lithologic mapping in arid regions with Landsat Thematic Mapper data: Meeting dome, Egypt. Geol. Soc. America Bull., 99, 748-762, 1987.
B.T. Willige. Seismic risk analysis in southwest-Germany based on satellite radar - data. International Archives of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing. Vol. XXXI, Part B7: 705-708, 1996.
M.N. Nabigian, M.E. Andr, V.J.S. Grauch, R.O. Hansen, T.R. Lafehr, Y. Li, W.C. Oerson, J.W. Peirce, J.D. Phillips, and M.E. Runder. 75th Anniversary - Historical development of the gravity method in exploration. Geophysics, 70, 63ND-89ND, 2005.
C. Hwang, E-C. Kao and B. Parsons. Global derivation of marine gravity anomalies from Seasat, Geosat, ERS-1 and TOPEX/POSEIDON altimeter data. Geophysical Journal international, 134: 449-459, 1998.
D.T. Sandwell and W.H.F. Smith. Marine gravity anomaly from Geosat and ERS-1 satellite altimetry. Journal of geophysical research-all series, 102: 10-10, 1997.
B.D. Tapley and M.C. Kim. Chapter 10 Applications to Geodesy. In: LEE-LUENG, F. and ANNY, C. (eds.) International Geophysics. Academic Press, 2001.
T. Greicius. GRACE mission overview [online]. NASA. Available at: http://www.nasan.gov/mission_pages/Grace/overview/index/html [accessed 8April 2014].
R.G. Henderson and I. Zietz. The computation of second vertical derivatives of geomagnetic field.Geophysics, Vol.14, pp. 508-516, 1949.
T.A.Elkins. The second derivative method of gravity interpretation Geophysics, Vol. 16, pp.29-50, 1951.
E.K.Darbyand E.B.Davies. Analysis and design of two-dimensional filters for two-dimensional data.Geophysical prospecting, Vol.15, pp.383-406, 1967.
A. Mesko. Some notes concerning the frequency analysis for gravity interpretation. Geophysical prospecting, Vol. 31, pp.475-488, 1965.
M. Dobrin. Introduction to geophysical prospecting. New York McGraw-Hill Inc., 1976.
L.L.Nettleton. Gravity and magnetic in oil prospecting, New York, McGraw Hill Inc., 1976.
A.E.Ibrahim.Interpretation of gravity and magnetic data from the Central African Rift System, Sudan. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Leeds, UK, 1993.