Welcome to Open Science
Contact Us
Home Books Journals Submission Open Science Join Us News
Human Ecology–Political Economy Nexus of Drivers of Drought-Vulnerabilities on Maasai Pastoralists’ Coupled Social-Ecological System in Kenya
Current Issue
Volume 5, 2018
Issue 3 (September)
Pages: 74-86   |   Vol. 5, No. 3, September 2018   |   Follow on         
Paper in PDF Downloads: 235   Since Oct. 19, 2018 Views: 1495   Since Oct. 19, 2018
Authors
[1]
Margaret Mwangi, Department of Geography, Pennsylvania State University & SESD, State College, University Park, USA.
Abstract
Maasai pastoralists subsist on rainfall-dependent livelihood production system in the savanna rangelands of East Africa. This study explores drought-ravages on the system of Maasai-pastoralism in Kenya, a strongly coupled social-ecological system, using an integrated approach. Proximate and underlying drivers of drought-vulnerability in Maasai-pastoralism are explored; drought-disaster/risk trajectory is conceptualized in a nexus approach. The current study reveals drought-ravages on Maasai-pastoralism are generated at the confluence of multiple inextricably interlinked variable and historically-contingent societal—mainly this system’s human ecology factors coupled with cross-scale political economy within which it is embedded, and is in constant flux—climatic, and ecological factors, processes, contexts, and their interactions. Operating through various interactions/feedbacks, diverse proximate and underlying social-biophysical drivers occasion drought-vulnerability. Persistent and growing livestock-based wealth-class divide is rapidly imprinting on Maasai-pastoralism under recurrent drought conditions. Drought-ravages in Maasai-pastoralism are contextual manifestations; the present drought-event is only partially responsible for the same. Over 90% observed impacts are devastative, and were trivial, even non-existent, in the past. Persistent, even rapid, deleterious impacts of climate change alongside cross-scale permeation of and shifts in diverse socioeconomic/sociopolitical globalization factors, processes, and their interactions constitute additional challenges on Maasai-pastoralism. Thus, apropos Maasai-pastoralism, a paradigm shift vis-à-vis drought-adaptation and/or drought-disasters reduction becomes necessary. This study cast useful insights into the landscapes of drought-ravages on Maasai-pastoralism in Kenya, and indeed similar systems across the Greater Horn of Africa, where droughts are recurrent, drought-adaptive capacities low, drought-disaster/risk persistent, and drought-vulnerable landscapes predominate. Overall, it should be clear: the necessity for practical bridging of research-policy-practice divide cannot be overemphasized.
Keywords
Drought, Drought-Impacts, Drought-Disasters, Drought-Vulnerability, Maasai-Pastoralism, Climate Change, Maasai Pastoralists, Disaster/Risk Trajectory, Drought-Ravages
Reference
[1]
EAStandard, “Tussle over water leaves Mai Mahiu in ruins,” The Standard (http://www.eastandard.net/hm_news/news.php?articleid=11645 Accessed 5 February 2005). 2005a
[2]
EAStandard, “Rancher clashes with herdsmen over pasture,” The Standard, (http://www.eastandard.net/hm_news/news.php?articleid=11869 Accessed 5 February 2005). 2005b
[3]
IRIN, United Nations Integrated Regional Information Networks. “UN office for the coordination of humanitarian affairs,” Kenya, 2018
[4]
WFP, World Food Programme, “Drought in the Horn of Africa: getting food to the hungry,” Available online: https://reliefweb.int/report/eritrea/drought-horn-africa-getting-food-hungry (Last Accessed 11 April 2017), 2000
[5]
EM-DAT, Emergency Events Database, “Country Profiles,” Available online: http://www.emdat.be (accessed on 05 July 2018), 2018
[6]
FEWSNET, Famine Early Warning Systems Network, Available online: Http://www.fews.net (Accessed 05 July 2018), 2018
[7]
Campbell, D. J, “Response to drought among farmers and herders in southern Kajiado District, Kenya: A Comparison of 1972-1976 and 1994-1995,” Human Ecology, 27 (3): 377-416, 1999
[8]
Mwangi, M, “The effects of drought on Lake Amboseli ecosystem in southern Kenya,” SEB's EconBotEd Digital Library (EconBotEdDL),” The Society for Economic Botany (SEB), Available online: https://econboted.econbot.org/index.php?P=Home, 2009
[9]
Mwangi, M, “Diverse drought spatiotemporal trends, diverse etic-emic perceptions and knowledge: implications for adaptive capacity and resource management for indigenous Maasai-Pastoralism in the rangelands of Kenya,” Climate, 4, x; doi: 10.3390/, 2016
[10]
Mwangi, M, “Effects of drought on nomadic pastoralism: impacts and adaptation among the Maasai of Kajiado District, Kenya,” PhD Dissertation, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA. 2012
[11]
Little, P, Smith, K, Cellarius, B. A, Coppock, D. L, and C. B, Barrett, “Avoiding disaster: Diversification and risk management among East African herders,” Dev. Change, Vol. 32, pp. 387–419, 2001
[12]
Little, P. D, “Pastoralism, biodiversity, and the shaping of savanna landscapes in East Africa,”Journal of International Africa Institute, Vol. 66 (1), pp. 37–51, 1996
[13]
Ellis, J. E, Coughenour, M. B, and D. M, Swift, “Climate variability, ecosystem stability, and the implications for range and livestock development, rethinking range ecology: implications for rangeland management in Africa,” In, Behnke, R. H., Scoones, I., and C. Kerven (Eds.), Range Ecology at disequilibrium: new models of natural variability and pastoral adaptation in African savannas, ODI (Overses Developemnst Instituite), London, UK: p. 31-41, 1993
[14]
Niamir-Fuller, M, “Conflict management and mobility among pastoralists in Karamoja, Uganda,” In: Niamir, M (Ed.), managing mobility in African rangelands: the legitimization of transhumance. Intermediate Technology Publication, London, pp. 18-46, 1999
[15]
Dahl, G, and A. Hjort, “Having herds: Pastoral herd growth and household economy,” Stockholm Studies in Social Anthropology, Department of Social Anthropology, University of Stockholm, Stockholm, Sweden. Vol. 2. pp. 335, 1976
[16]
Bassett, T. J, “The political ecology of peasant-herder conflicts in the northern Ivory Coast,” Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Vol. 78 (3), pp. 453–72, 1988
[17]
Blaikie, P and H. Brookfield, “Land degradation and society,” New York: Methuen, 1987
[18]
Smith, K. Barrett, C. B, and P. W, Box, “Participatory risk mapping for targeting research and assistance: With an example from East African Pastoralist”. World Development, Vol. 28 (11), pp. 1945–1959, 2000
[19]
Hauck, S. and D. I. Rubenstein, “Pastoralist societies in flux: A conceptual framework analysis of herding and land use among the Mukugodo Maasai of Kenya,” Pastoralism 7: 18. Available online: https://doi.org/10.1186/s13570-017-0090-4, 2017
[20]
Njiru B. N, “Climate Change, Resource Competition, and Conflict amongst Pastoral Communities in Kenya, In: Scheffran J., Brzoska M., Brauch H., Link P., Schilling J, (eds) Climate Change, Human Security and Violent Conflict, Hexagon Series on Human and Environmental Security and Peace, vol 8. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012
[21]
Kameri-Mbote, P, “Property rights and Biodiversity management in Kenya,” ACTS Press, Nairobi, 2002
[22]
Western, D, “The environment and ecology of pastoralists in arid savannahs,” Development and Change 13: 183-211, 1982
[23]
Homewood, K, and J. Lewis, “Impact of drought on pastoral livestock in Baringo, Kenya, 1983–85,” Journal of Applied Ecology, Vol. 24, pp. 615–631, 1987
[24]
GoK, Government of Kenya, “District Development Plan: Kajiado,” Government Printer: Nairobi, Kenya, 2002
[25]
Wilhite, D. A, “Drought: A Global Assessment,” Routledge: London, UK, 2000
[26]
IPCC, “Climate change: impacts, adaptation and vulnerability, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Third Assessment Report,” Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK, 2001
[27]
IPCC, “Climate change: impacts, adaptation and vulnerability, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Fourth Assessment Report,” Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK, 2007
[28]
IPCC, “Climate change: impacts, adaptation and vulnerability, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Fifth Assessment Report,” Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK, 2014
[29]
McSweeney, C., New, M., and G. Lizcano, “UNDP Climate change country profiles: Kenya. University of Oxford, Oxford, UK, p26, 2007
[30]
Opiyo, F., Nyangito, M., Wasonga, O. V. and P. Omondi, “Trend analysis of rainfall and temperature variability in arid environment of Turkana, Kenya,” Environmental Research Journal, 8: 30-43, 2014
[31]
UNDP, “United Nations Development Programme”, http://www.undp.org/, (Accessed 15 April 2018) 2018
[32]
Zimmerer, K. S, and T. J, Bassett, Eds, “Political ecology: an integrative approach to geography and environment-development studies,” Guilford: NY. 2003
[33]
Blaikie, P, “The political economy of soil erosion in developing countries,” London: Longman, 1985
[34]
Holling, C. S, “Understanding the complexity of economic, ecological, and social systems,” Ecosystems, Vol. 4, pp. 390–405, 2001
[35]
Berkes, F and C. Folke, C, Eds., “Linking social and ecological systems: management practices and social mechanisms for building resilience,” Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1998
[36]
GoK, Government of Kenya, “District Development Plan: Kajiado,” Government Printer: Nairobi, Kenya, 1994
[37]
Katampoi, K.; Ole Genga, G. O.; Mwangi, M.; Kipkan, J.; Ole Seitah, J.; van Klinken, M. K.; Mwangi, M. S, “Kajiado District Atlas,” Ministry of Reclamation and Development of Arid, Semi-Arid Areas and Wastelands, Government of Kenya (GoK): Nairobi, Kenya, 1990
[38]
Georgiadis, N. J, “Microhabitat variation in an African savanna: Effects of woody cover and herbivores in Kenya,” J. Trop. Ecol., 5, 93–108, 1989
[39]
GoK, Government of Kenya, “District Development Plan: Kajiado,” Government Printer: Nairobi, Kenya, 1997
[40]
Jaetzold, R, and H. Schmidt, “Farm Management Handbook of Kenya,” Ministry of Agriculture: Nairobi, Kenya, 1983
[41]
Grandin, B. E, “Land tenure subdivision and residential change on a Maasai group ranch,” Development Anthropology Journal 4 (2): 9-13, 1986
[42]
Kimani, K. and J. Pickard, “Recent trends and implications of group ranch sub-division and fragmentation in Kajiado District, Kenya,” The Geographical Journal 164 (2): 202-213, 1998
[43]
Kituyi, M, “Becoming Kenyans: socioeconomic transformation of the pastoral Maasai,” Acts Press: Nairobi, 1990
[44]
Mwangi, E, “The puzzle of group ranch subdivision in Kenya’s Maasailand,” Development and Change 38 (5): 889–910, 2007
[45]
Stevens, J, “Applied multivariate statistics for the social sciences,” Lawrence Erlbaum Associates: Hillsdale, NJ, USA, 1986
[46]
Mwangi, M, “Effects of livelihood-diversification on sustainability of natural resources in the rangelands of East Africa: Participatory field studies and results of an agent-based model using the knowledge of indigenous Maasai pastoralists of Kenya,” In Environmental Modeling with Stakeholders; Gray, S., Jordan, R., Gray, S., Eds.; Springer: New York NY, USA, 2017
[47]
FAO, Food and Agriculture Organization, “The community's toolbox: the idea, methods and tools for participatory assessment, monitoring and evaluation in community forestry,” Rome, 1990
[48]
Friis-Hansen, E, and B. Sthapit, Eds, “Participatory approaches to the conservation and use of plant genetic resources,” International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, Rome, Italy, 2000
[49]
Quinn, C. H, Huby, M, Kiwasila, H, and J. C, Lovett, “Local perceptions of risk to livelihood in semi-arid Tanzania,” Journal Environmental Management, Vol. 68, pp. 111-119, 2003
[50]
Brooks, N., Adger, W. N., and P. M. Kelly, “The determinants of vulnerability and adaptive capacity at the national level and the implications for adaptation,” Global Environmental Change 15: 151–63, 2005
[51]
Eliza, M. J., C. Z. Leo, and E. Kalipeni, “Oil discovery in Turkana County, Kenya: A source of conflict or development?” African Geographical Review 34 (2): 142–164, 2015
[52]
Scheffran, J., T. Ide, and J. Schilling, “Violent climate or climate of violence?” Concepts and relations with focus on Kenya and Sudan,” The International Journal of Human Rights 18 (3): 369–390, 2014
[53]
Sivakumar M. V. K, Das, H. P, and O Brunini, “Impacts of present and future climate variability and change on agriculture and forestry in the arid and semi-arid tropics,” Climatic Change 70 (1–2), 31–72, 2005
[54]
Green, R. H, “The political-economy of drought in Southern Africa 1991-1993,” Health Policy and Planning, Vol. 8, pp. 255–266, 1993
[55]
Sen, A, “Poverty and Famines: An Essay on entitlement and deprivation,” Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1981
[56]
Gray, S., Jordan, R., and S. Gray, Eds, “Environmental modeling with stakeholders,” Springer: New York: NY, USA, 2017
[57]
Brown, C., Meeks, R., Hunu, K., Yu, W, “Hydroclimate risk to economic growth in sub-Saharan Africa,” Clim. Change 106, 621–647, 2011
[58]
Holden, S. T., and B. Shiferaw, “Land degradation, drought and food security in a less-favoured area in the Ethiopian highlands: a bio-economic model with market imperfections,” Agric. Econ. 30, 31–49, 2004
[59]
Janowiak, J. E, “An investigation of interannual rainfall variability in Africa,” J. Climate 1, 240–255, 1988
[60]
Jury, M. R, “Economic impacts of climate variability in South Africa and development of resource prediction models. J. Appl. Meteorol. 41, 46–55, 2000
[61]
Scheffran, J., Marmer, E., and P. Sow, “Migration as a contribution to resilience and innovation in climate adaptation: social networks and co-development in northwest Africa,” Appl. Geogr. 33, 119–127, 2012
[62]
World Bank, “Managing water resources to maximize sustainable growth: a country water resources assistance strategy for Ethiopia,” The World Bank, Washington DC. 2005
[63]
Reuters, “In culture shift, Kenya's Maasai herders swap to goats as drought fells cattle,” Available online: https://www.reuters.com/article/us-kenya-livestock-weather/in-culture-shift-kenyas-maasai-herders-swap-to-goats-as-drought-fells-cattle-idUSKBN1I401J (Last Accessed 05 July 2018), 2018
[64]
Asilia, “Climate Change and The Maasai,” Available online: https://www.asiliaafrica.com/climate-change-maasai/ (Last Accessed 05 July 2018), 2018
[65]
Kimiti, S, Western, D., Mbau, J. S., and O. V. Wasonga, “Impacts of long-term land-use changes on herd size and mobility among pastoral households in Amboseli ecosystem, Kenya,” Ecological Processes, 7: 4. 10.1186/s13717-018-0115-y, 2018
Open Science Scholarly Journals
Open Science is a peer-reviewed platform, the journals of which cover a wide range of academic disciplines and serve the world's research and scholarly communities. Upon acceptance, Open Science Journals will be immediately and permanently free for everyone to read and download.
CONTACT US
Office Address:
228 Park Ave., S#45956, New York, NY 10003
Phone: +(001)(347)535 0661
E-mail:
LET'S GET IN TOUCH
Name
E-mail
Subject
Message
SEND MASSAGE
Copyright © 2013-, Open Science Publishers - All Rights Reserved