Welcome to Open Science
Contact Us
Home Books Journals Submission Open Science Join Us News
Physiography of the Barind Tract and Its Surrounding Areas Bengal Basin, Bangladesh
Current Issue
Volume 5, 2018
Issue 1 (March)
Pages: 1-9   |   Vol. 5, No. 1, March 2018   |   Follow on         
Paper in PDF Downloads: 47   Since May 29, 2018 Views: 1106   Since May 29, 2018
Bazlar Rashid, Geological Survey of Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
Sultan-Ul-Islam, Department of Geology and Mining, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
Badrul Islam, Department of Geology and Mining, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
The Barind Tract is a relatively elevated (about 11-48 m amsl) triangular wedge of landmass. It is one of the many Pleistocene terraces present in northwestern Bangladesh. Physiography has become one of the essential inputs in planning for various developmental activities. The present paper is an attempt to delineate the physiography of the Barind Tract and its surrounding areas with the help of drainage characteristics. SPOT Panchromatic images and topographic maps have been visually interpreted for this study. The area has been divided into three major physiographic units and fifteen sub-units. The major units are the Barind Tract, Channel-floodplain complexes and Himalayan piedmont plain (Tista Fan). The elevation of the Barind Tract ranges from about 11-48 m amsl, the floodplain is about 8-23 m amsl and the Tista Fan is about 30-45 m amsl. The eastern part of the Barind Tract has leveled topography with regional slopes towards SW. The western part has undulating to rolling topography with regional slopes towards SE and SW respectively. In this part of the Barind Tract drainage density is high as compared to that of the eastern part. The sub-drainages or tributaries of main channels flows roughly E-W and W-E directions from a saddle like area and joins the roughly N-S flowing main channel. The south-central part of the study area represents a number of depressions with anastomosing drainage pattern. Surface water of the northern Ganges floodplain flows to the northern rivers, channels and the Atrai River instead to the Ganges River. The Tangon and Punarbhaba Rivers show multi-channel anastomosing systems in the Tangon and Punarbhaba valleys and these valleys do not continue up to the Mahananda River. The laterally migrated drainages is present in the floodplain areas, which is absent in the Barind Tract. The Tista Fan has been delineated over the northern part of the study area. After emerging from the foothills of the Himalayas this fan has a criss-crossed network of channels with shifting river courses. Finally, it can be concluded that the different parts of the Barind Tract and its surrounding areas have distinguishing characteristics of their own. It is, therefore, for future planning and sustainable development of the area, the information revealed from this study might be considered.
Bengal Basin, Barind Tract, Drainage Characteristics, Physiography
Alam, A. K. M. K., 1995. Neotectonic evidences along the eastern margin of the Barind Tract, Bangladesh. Bangladesh Journal of Geology, v. 14, p. 25-31.
Alam, M. K., Hassan, A. K. M. S., Khan, M. R., and Whitney, J. W., 1990. Geological Map of Bangladesh. Geological Survey of Bangladesh, Dhaka, Scale 1: 1 000 000.
Alam, M. S. and Paepe, R., 1996. Palaeosols in the Quaternary stratigraphy in north-western Bangladesh. Bangladesh Journal of Geology, v. 2, p. 15-36.
Anon, 1996. Floods in Bangladesh, Swiss Agency for development and corporation. Institute of Geography, University of Berne, Germany.
Bagchi, K., 1944. The Ganges Delta. Department of Geography, Calcutta University Press, New York, p. 157.
Bakr, M. A., 1977. Quaternary geomorphic evolution of the Brahmanbaria-Noakhali area, Comilla and Noakhali Districts, Bangladesh. Records of the Geological Survey of Bangladesh, v. 1 (2), p. 48.
Brammer, H., 2012. The Physical geography of Bangladesh. The University Press Limited, Dhaka, p. 547.
Brammer. H. and R. Brinkman 1977. Surface-water gley soils in Bangladesh: Environment, landforms and soil morphology. Geoderma, v. 17, p. 91-109.
Bristow, C. S., 2009. Gradual Avulsion, River Metamorphosis and Reworking by Underfit Streams: a Modern Example from the Brahmaputra River in Bangladesh and a Possible Ancient Example in the Spanish Pyrenees. In Fluvial Sedimentology VI, 221-230. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781444304213.ch17.
Fergusson, J., 1863. On recent changes in the delta of the Ganges. Journal of Geological Society, London, v. 19, p. 322-354.
Guha, D. K., 1978. Tectonic framework and oil and gas prospects of Bangladesh. In 4th Annual Conference Proceedings, Bangladesh Geological Society, p. 65-76.
Gupta, H. P., 1981. Paleoenvironment during Holocene time in Bengal basin, India as reflected by palynology. Palaeobotanist, v. 27 (2), p. 138-159.
Hossain, M. S., 1996. Some aspects of Geomorphology and Pedology of the Tista Fan, Northwest of Bangladesh. Bangladesh Journal of Geology, v. 15, p. 1-11.
Hunter, W. W., 1876. A Statistical Account of Bengal. VIII, D. K. Publishing House, Delhi, p. 326.
Huq, M. A., 1992. Study in neotectonic activities in the western part of Rajshahi District, Bangladesh. Bangladesh Journal of Geology, v. 11, p. 1-10.
Johnson, B. L. C, 1975. Bangladesh. Heninmann Educational Books Ltd., London.
Khan, A. A., 1991. Tectonics of the Bengal Basin. Journal of Himalayan Geology, v. 2 (1), p. 91-101.
Khan, M. R., 2002. Plate Tectonics and Bangladesh. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bangladesh Science, Golden Jubilee Issue, Dhaka, Bangladesh, v. 28 (2), p. 39-62.
Khandoker, R. A., 1989. Development of major tectonic elements of the Bengal Basin: a plate tectonic appraisal. Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research, v. 7, p. 221-232.
Krishnan, M. S., 1982. Geology of India and Burma. 6th Edition, CBS Publishers and Distributors, Madras, India, p. 535.
Lahiri, S. K., and Sinha, R., 2012. Tectonic controls on the morphodynamics of the Brahmaputra River system in the upper Assam valley, India. Geomorphology, 169-170, 74-85. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph. 2012. 04. 012.
Morgan, J. P. and McIntire, W. G., 1959. Quaternary Geology of the Bengal Basin, East Pakistan and India. Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 70, p. 319-342.
Priyadarshi, N., 2009. Sedimentation by Himalayan Rivers may cause Earthquakes and Land subsidence in Eastern India. Environment and Geology, Source. http://nitishpriyadarshi.blogspot.com/.
Rashid, B., Islam, S. U. and Badrul I., 2015a. Sub-Surface Geology and Evolution of the Barind Tract, Bangladesh. American Journal of Earth Sciences, (http://www.openscienceonline.com/journal/ajes), v. 2 (2), pp. 22-38.
Rashid, B., Islam, S. U. and Badrul I., 2015b. Drainage characteristics and evolution of the Barind Tract, Bangladesh. American Journal of Earth Sciences (http://www.openscienceonline.com/journal/ajes), 2014; v. 1 (4), pp. 86-98.
Rashid, H. E., 1977. Geography of Bangladesh.p. 9-42.
Rashid, M. B., Hasan, M. and Mahmud, A., 2016. Adverse Impact on Drainage System by Unplanned Human Intervention in the South-Western Coastal Part of Bangladesh. Book of Abstracts, ISBN: 978-85-64964-09-9, Ninth International Conference on Coastal and Port Engineering in Developing Countries (PIANC-COPEDEC IX), 16 Oct-21 Oct 2016, Rio De Jeneiro, Brazil, www.pianc-copedec2016.com.br, pp. 90-91.
Rashid, M. B., Islam, M. B., and Islam, M. S., 2013b. Causes of Acute Water Scarcity in the Barind Tract, Bangladesh. International Journal of Economic and Environment Geology (www.econ-environ-geol.org), v. 4 (1), pp. 5-14.
Rashid, M. B., Mahmud, A., Ahsan, M. K., Khasru, M. H., Islam, M. A., 2013a. Drainage Congestion and Its Impact on Environment in the South-Western Coastal Part of Bangladesh. Bangladesh Journal of Geology, v. 31-32, pp. 43-55.
Reimann, K. U., 1993. Geology of Bangladesh. GebruderBorntrager, Berlin, p. 160.
Rennel, J., 1783. Rennell’s Bengal Atlas. Reproduced by Heliozencography at the survey of India offices, Calcutta, 1910.
Rizvi, S. N. H., 1975. Bangladesh District Gazetters. Dacca, Government of the Peoples’s Republic of Bangladesh.
Sarker, M. H., Thorne, C. R., Aktar, M. N., Ferdous, M. R., 2014. Morpho-dynamics of the Brahmaputra-Jamuna River, Bangladesh. Geomorphology, 215, 45-59. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2013.07.025.
Sarma, J. N., 2005. Fluvial process and morphology of the Brahmaputra River Spec. Publ. Int. Ass. Sedimentol, 28, 221-230.
SPARRSO, 1984. Landsat MSS FCC Mosaic of Bangladesh. Scale: 1: 1,000,000.
Thorne, C. R., Russell, A. P. G., Alam, M. K., 1993. Landform pattern and channel evolution of the Brahmaputra River, Bangladesh. In: Best, J. L., Bristow, C. S. (Eds.), Braided Rivers. Geol. Soc., London, 257- 276.
Umitsu, M., 1985. Natural levees and landform evolutions in the Bengal lowland. Geographical Review of Japan, Series B, v. 58, p. 149-164.
Wells. N. A., and J. A., Door, Jr., 1987. Shifting of the Kosi River, northern India. Geology, v. 15, p. 204-207.
Open Science Scholarly Journals
Open Science is a peer-reviewed platform, the journals of which cover a wide range of academic disciplines and serve the world's research and scholarly communities. Upon acceptance, Open Science Journals will be immediately and permanently free for everyone to read and download.
Office Address:
228 Park Ave., S#45956, New York, NY 10003
Phone: +(001)(347)535 0661
Copyright © 2013-, Open Science Publishers - All Rights Reserved